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Preschool Students’ Perceptions on Environmental Problems
Kader Birinci Konur, Nihan Akyol
pp. 2109-2119 | Article Number: ijese.2017.141
According to the preschool teaching program, since the students at this stage forge closer ties with nature, it is important to reveal their awareness and perceptions of the environmental problems in nature. Within this respect, the study aims at determining concepts that the preschool students have in their cognitive structures related to the environmental issues and their perceptions related to these problems. The study was carried out with 5 students who study at a preschool institution in Rize province in Turkey. Phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research designs was used in this study. The data were obtained by having carried out interviews about the events and circumstances. 5 pictures about soil pollution, light pollution, noise pollution, water pollution and air pollution were used as data collection tool. The students were asked to look at these pictures and state their comments related to them. It was aimed to establish with which concepts in their minds students associated the environmental pollutions illustrated on the pictures and their perceptions in this regard. When the students’ comments on the pictures were analysed, it was established that most of them used directly relevant and meaningful concepts related to the subject. On the other hand, it was found out that some of the students had deficient or incorrect concepts in stating environmental problems. It was also determined that students associate all environmental problems with the human concept, and they are of the opinion that problems are caused by the human.
Keywords: Environmental Education, Environmental Problems, Preschool Students
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The Themes of Metalworking in the Saljuqid period vis-à-vis Khorasan and Mosul Schools
Habib Shahbazi Shiran, Samad Parvin, Maryam Mastalizadeh
pp. 2121-2132 | Article Number: ijese.2017.142
The Saljuqs were originally nomadic tribes and nomadic Turkmen from Kyrgyz regions of Central Asia. In the early eleventh century, the Saljuqs began their reign by seizing a major part of Transoxiana. The Saljuqid is one of the most important eras in Islamic-Iranian civilization in which different fine arts reached an unprecedented apogee of flourishing in the history of Iran. The remaining objects from this period show that metalworking was highly developed. Similar to previous eras, silver and gold were rarely used in the Saljuqid era because of religious bans. Silver and gold were used for plating less valuable metals such as bronze and brass. The aim of this article is to examine the forms, themes, and metals used in the Saljuqid era and to investigate the innovations made by two artistic movements, namely, Khorasan and Mosul. Some of the most important art and crafts schools, especially metalworking, of this era were Khorasan and Mosul. This article is based on bibliographic research with an analytical-descriptive approach. First the themes are analyzed, followed by a study of the symbols, and finally an analysis of the intention behind them.
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Development of Electrical Engineering Teacher Competency Model Facing ASEAN Economic Community
Fid Jantje Tasiam, Djoko Kustono, Purnomo, Hakkun Elmunsyah
pp. 2133-2138 | Article Number: ijese.2017.143
The main factor facing the ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) is prepare a reliable Human Resources (HR), if not prepared carefully will be missed and citizens of Indonesia can be a guest at home. The objectives of this research are (1) to describe the competency model of vocational electrical engineering teacher to face the ASEAN Economic Community (MEA), (2) develop electrical engineering vocational model with website approach, and (3) Show feasibility level of websites when used to develop the competence of vocational high school electrical engineering teachers. Based on the validation results obtained the final data of 95% of material experts, 96.4% of media experts, and 88% of teachers. Based on the average results obtained from the test of material experts, media experts, and teachers obtained a percentage of 93.1%, so it can be concluded the website developed is valid and feasible to use.
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What Students Say About Senior High School Organic Chemistry
pp. 2139-2152 | Article Number: ijese.2017.144
West African Examination Council’s (WAEC) Chief Examiners for chemistry have observed that most Senior High School students exhibit poor mastery of concepts in organic chemistry. The Chief Examiners recommended that chemistry teachers start teaching organic chemistry early and give more practice questions to students. In order understand the challenges students have, regarding the organic chemistry, the study aimed at finding out what students say about teaching and learning organic chemistry in Senior High Schools in Ghana. The survey employed a mixed methods approach to seek the views of students on the organic chemistry aspect of the Senior High School chemistry syllabus. The population for the study was 348 students. The students were, science and mathematics students at Foso College of education, level 100 students at the faculty of Science and the Department of Science and Mathematics Education at University of Cape Coast and students attending remedial classes at Secondi/Takoradi Metropolis. The sample consisted of 32 remedial students at Secondi/Takoradi Metropolis, 132 Mathematics and Science students at Foso College of Education, Assin Foso, and 71 level 100 students in the faculty of Science and the Department of Science and Mathematics Education of University of Cape Coast. Two instruments were used to collect data from the sample. The instruments were a focus group interview schedule, which was used to collect qualitative data, and a Senior High School Organic Chemistry Perception Assessment Tool. The students said, though they have a negative perception about organic chemistry aspect of the Senior High School chemistry syllabus, organic chemistry does not make them nervous nor bored, because they find organic chemistry interesting. They are also said they want to study organic chemistry, and even do it on their own, not for the reason of passing exams but for life. However, teachers’ ill affinity towards organic chemistry seriously affected their understanding of organic chemistry. Chemistry teachers would have to understand organic chemistry and see the organic chemistry aspect of the Senior High School chemistry syllabus as an essential component of chemistry education, if they want their students to learn organic chemistry with ease.
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A context Specific Framework Approach to Community-Based Monitoring
pp. 2153-2175 | Article Number: ijese.2017.145
This paper aims to outline the development of a generic citizen science framework that can be implemented at educational institutions such as university campuses and schools. The framework was developed as a reflective practice after implementation of a community-based water-monitoring project with pre-service teachers and school learners at the North-West University (Vaal Campus), South Africa. The proposed generic citizen science framework was designed by the researcher as an application of various available citizen science models to the North-West University (Vaal Campus) water-monitoring project. The designed framework is, therefore, the product of document reviews and reflection on the real-world practice of a community-based water-monitoring project. The implementation of citizen science in communities, and specifically a community-based water-monitoring project, requires planning and implementation of diverse complex concepts at different levels. Adhering to previous research and refining recommendations with practical findings from a real-life project aid to develop a framework of citizen science that can provide guidance to plan future citizen science projects at educational institutions. The proposed framework can provide sound guidance to citizen science project leaders of different educational institutions regarding citizen science projects. The proposed framework aligns literature and practical experience to create a simplistic view on citizen science projects. The proposed framework can be considered as the “big picture” in citizen science and may guide future projects as a departure point when planning a project
Keywords: citizen science; community-based monitoring; participation; adaptive management; framework
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The Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Student Learning Interest on the Achievement of Economic Learning at Madrasah Aliyah in Indonesia
pp. 2177-2183 | Article Number: ijese.2017.146
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of emotional intelligence and interest in learning on economic achievement. The research method used is survey. The sample size is 60 students selected randomly from all students of Madrasah Aliyah in Bekasi. The data were collected through interview, direct observation, questionnaire, and documentation. Data analysis with multiple regression method. Statistical test used F test and t test. The result showed that emotional intelligence and student learning interest obtained by correlation coefficient of 0,574 with determination coefficient equal to 33% with double regression analysis is as follows: Y = 17,252 + 0,323 X1 + 0,334 X2. T = 2.612 and 2.808. Through the test analysis obtained that the correlation coefficient and regression are significant. From these equations simultaneously show that the variable of emotional intelligence and interest in learning influence on economic learning achievement. And partially that each variable of emotional intelligence effect on the achievement of economic learning and interest in learning influence on economic learning achievement.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Interest in Learning, Learning Achievement
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Perception, Attitude and Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals From Borehole Waters Collected in a Town Near Mining İndustries in Pretoria, South Africa
Joshua Oluwole Olowoyo, Ntebo Lion & Karabo Mothata
pp. 2185-2194 | Article Number: ijese.2017.147
The availability of drinking water is fast becoming a major challenge in most of the developing countries. Reliance on well and borehole water is thus on the increase without prior effort to consider their safety for human consumption. The present study investigated the concentrations of trace metals in water samples collected from borehole in a village surrounded by mining industries with a view to determining the health implication of drinking water from these boreholes. The study further examined the attitude and perception of villagers on the quality and the treatment of the water before consumption. The study was conducted in a village surrounded by different mining companies. Water samples were collected during the summer and winter seasons from randomly selected boreholes in the village and structured questionnaires were administered in order to get information on water treatment methods used by the villagers. The trace metal content of the water was determined by Inductive Couple Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). The result showed that there was no significant difference in the concentrations of trace metals obtained for the two sampling periods (p< 0.05). Concentrations of trace metals such as Zn and Hg were above the recommended limit set by World Health Organization (WHO) for trace metals in water. The report from the questionnaire showed that 97% of those interviewed do not treat the water before drinking and had no any prior knowledge of trace metals in water. The report from the questionnaire further showed that 60% of those interviewed agreed that the water is available during the summer period and may become scarce during the winter season; however the respondents agreed that there is no need to get pipe borne water from any other source. The study concluded that since the majority of the people rely on these boreholes for the supply of portable water and taking into consideration the levels of Zn and Hg in some of the boreholes, it may be necessary to monitor the levels of trace metals from these boreholes regularly.
Keywords: Borehole water, water purification, Zinc, Mercury
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Active Learning in a Summer Genetics Course: Positive Shifts in Attitudes with CLASS-Bio
Julie Fairbanks Westerlund & Christina R Chapman
pp. 2195-2211 | Article Number: ijese.2017.148
We describe a newly developed summer genetics course based upon active learning within a social community. To gauge the success of the course, we examined the attitudes of 72 genetics students on a continuum from novice to more expert-like thinking using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology (CLASS-Bio) (Semsar, Knight, Birol and Smith, 2011). The study occurred during two summer courses in 2015 (N=55) and 2017 (N=57) that were designed as active learning communities. By the end of the course, the perceptions of students in both years became more expert-like or positive in all categories on the CLASS-Bio. There were both substantive (Cohen’s d effect size ≥ .3) and statistically, significant (p ≤ .05) differences between pre-and post- means in the following categories in 2015: Problem-Solving Synthesis & Application, Conceptual Connections, and Problem-Solving Strategies and in the following categories in 2017: Enjoyment, Real World, Problem-Solving Synthesis & Application, Problem-Solving Effort and Conceptual Connections. We demonstrate that there were significant shifts in student attitudes towards more positive and expert-like views in a newly designed summer genetics course. These results were consistent in both of the years.
Keywords: Active Learning, Genetics, Summer Courses, CLASS-Bio
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The Effect of Learning Discovery Model on the Learning Outcomes of Natural Science of Junior High School Students Indonesia
pp. 2213-2216 | Article Number: ijese.2017.149
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of discovery learning model on the learning outcomes of Natural Sciences. The research was done by experimental method. The sample of the research is ninth grade students of Junior High School. Data analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that there is a significant effect of discovery learning model on the learning outcomes of Natural Sciences. This shows that to improve the learning outcomes of Natural Sciences it is necessary to use discovery learning model.
Keywords: Learning Model, Discovery, Learning Outcomes, Natural science
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Principles and Legal Conditions of Confidentiality of Arbitration in International Trade
Reza Fatin Azara, Seyyed Mehdi Salehi
pp. 2217-2231 | Article Number: ijese.2017.150
Arbiter advantages against governmental justice cause to traders reference to arbiter in themselves pleas at international level . The main question relate to arbiter secrecy based on international trade and commercial arbiter resources. What are delinquency sanction and domain? Comparative study of legal systems show that, they don’t have same viewpoint commitment to mentioned existence resources. Really, commitment confirming in lack of clear agreement between contract parties faced with many important problems. In some countries law, this principal or commitment was denied. In current research, we tried to confirm this commitment as a contract implied and implicit condition and determine sanction violation . Also we can say , attendance to plaints is open in justice courts and private and exceptional attendance need to affirmation .
Keywords: Secrecy , Privacy , Arbiter , Internal law , International trade
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Formative Assessment with Stages of Understanding by Design (UbD) in Improving Habits of Mind
Ria Yulia Gloria, Sudarmin, Wiyanto, & Dyah Rini Indriyanti
pp. 2233-2242 | Article Number: ijese.2017.151
A new trend in the education world is the effort to improve high level thinking skills and smart thinking habits. This is due to a change of the paradigm in teaching: from teacher centered learning to student centered learning. A student centered learning will make students encounter various problems, therefore a learning that can train high thinking skills and smart thinking habits is needed. One way to train and form habits of mind is by applying formative assessment. This study is aimed to know the effect of formative assessment in improving habits of mind. The method used was quasi-experiment design. As many as 31 students were given treatment i.e. by giving them formative assessment through stages of UbD for one semester. The strategies of formative assessment given were discussion and presentation; mind mapping, analysis of scientific articles, and practices. Pre test and posttest were given to measure the students’ habits of mind. Observation of activities during teaching and learning process, both theory and practice, was done. Research result with t-test showed there was a significant improvement in habits of mind, and the value of habits of mind per category in each formative assessment strategy has significant differences when using one-way anova test.
Keywords: Formative Assessment, Habits of mind, Understanding by design (UbD)
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Factors Affecting Physical Activity Participation of the Turkish Individuals Living in the United States
pp. 2243-2259 | Article Number: ijese.2017.152
The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors affecting physical activity participation of the Turkish people living in the United States (US) since sociocultural adaptaion processes might affect behavior towards physical activities. 514 Turkish people (307 women, 207 men) living in the US participated in the research on average aged 36,72. The data were collected with a 31-item research scale developed from Kaiser-Meyer-Oikin parameter and Barlett Sphericity test, and analyzed with Explanatory Factor Analysis (AFA) test and Cronbach’s Alpha. Comparing the data sets, consisting of two-group variables, independent sample t-test was used whereas for the data sets, consisting of more than two group variables, a one-way ANOVA was used. According to BMI values, a significant difference [F (3,513)=3,581,p<.05] was found in terms of individual factors in physical activity participation. Overall it was found that the Turkish people living in the US have a high motivation to participate in physical activity. However, women compared to men, married individuals compared to singles, and obese individuals compared to average weighted individuals were found to encounter more obsticles participating in physical activities.
Keywords: the United States, BMI, physical activity, obesity, Turkish people
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Problem Based Learning (PBL-Civics) Model Development of Civic Education to Improve the Motivation and Learning Outcomes
Darmawati, Patta Bundu, Darman Manda
pp. 2261-2273 | Article Number: ijese.2017.153
This study aimed to obtain pictures in learning about Citizenship Education (Civics) in STISIP Muhammadiyah Sinjai and obtain the Valid PBL-Civics model, practical and effective way to improve motivation and learning outcomes of students who programmed the Civics course. This type of research is the study of education with the approach of Research and Development which refers to the development of learning model as proposed by Sugiono (2011). This study was analyzed quantitatively to determine whether the model developed already meet the criteria for effective learning to improve student learning motivation. Products developed comprising: a model of books, textbooks, lesson plans, MFI. The learning model is implemented as a whole and has met the criteria effectively to improve student learning motivation. Mastery learning is very good as well as the management of learning very well that this model is considered effective.
Keywords: Model Development, Valid, Practical, Effective
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Application of Waste Rubberwood Ash in Carbon Dioxide Absorption
Thiwa Rattanaya, Prapassorn Sawasdisan, Preeyaporn Srichuay, Alisa Samanwiwat, Prawit Kongjan, Paowarit Yuso, Mahlipeng Waehamah, Rattana Jariyaboon, & Alissara Reungsang
pp. 2275-2287 | Article Number: ijese.2017.154
In upgrading raw natural gaseous fuel, CO2 has to be removed. Waste rubberwood ash solution was applied in CO2 absorption. The pH of the rubberwood ash suspension was max. 12.4, with the main dissolved minerals being potassium, magnesium and sodium, and no significant amounts of heavy metals were found. Rubberwood ash solution was able in a packed column reactor to remove 41% v/v of CO2 in an N2 stream. The highest 95.2 % CO2 removal efficiency was achieved at the gas flow and absorbent flow rates of 600 L/h and 500 L/h, respectively, and required 35.4 kg ash/kg CO2 removed. A concept for the application of rubberwood ash in biofuel production for biomass power plant is proposed. The discussion reveals the possibility of a good practice waste management utilizing waste ash in upgrading gaseous fuel and furthermore in environmentally benign biofuel production.
Keywords: carbon dioxide; rubberwood ash; chemical absorption; packed column
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E-Future Classroom: A study Mixed Reality Learning Environment for Deaf Learners in Thailand
Yada Atanan, Suwanna Sombunsukho, Surapon Boonlue
pp. 2291-2315 | Article Number: ijese.2017.155
Learning environment could both directly and indirectly affect human learning in terms of abstract and concrete concepts. For education, classroom was regarded as one of significant learning environments which teachers and learners provided activities and instructional models to promote learners’ learning and help them achieve curriculum objectives. This research aimed to develop an e-future classroom (electronic future classroom) which consisted of several elements as follows: electronic innovative technology, education instruction, education environment, and evaluation standard. The e-future classroom was different from general classrooms since it was a learning resource combined with AR hologram technology and specially designed for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) learners. Mixed reality learning environment was created to enhance instructional experience by focusing on visual learning to suite target learners through activities in class, instructional models, and knowledge and skill practices. Interactive learning was also emphasized using a variety of technologies such as image, animation, and virtual reality to improve learning efficiency of DHH learners via total communication instruction which was a main instructional model currently used in many schools for the deaf. This e-future classroom was beneficial to increase learning efficiency, learning achievement, information and communications technology (ICT) skill, and information literacy for the DHH learners.
Keywords: E-future Classroom, Mixed Reality Learning Environment, Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH)
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Strengthening the Basic Competence of Sciences for Master Students of Science Education Program
Nathan Hindarto, Wiyanto, Retno Sri Iswari
pp. 2317-2325 | Article Number: ijese.2017.156
Based on Indonesian National Qualification Framework (known as, KKNI), master studen in science education alumnus is targeting to well understanding about materials or concepts that rely on memorization will impact on students' inability to construct relationships between concepts, integrate new concepts with previous concepts to create imagination in understanding concepts. In order to achieve the specific target, the research used explorative research design with writing test data, then for triangulation data, the test result is followed up with in-depth interview. In-depth interviews were conducted through clinical interviews and individual demonstration interviews. The results showed that the initial ability of science S2 students in science subjects is low. On a scale of 0-100 the profiles of basic competence in science of the students is 35.4 for Physics, 43.7 for Biology and 49.7 for Chemistry. Interviews indicate that unfavorable learning materials are complex materials and a lot of discussion on work mechanism, abstract material and many scientific terms and materials that require a high level of understanding. Based on these results need to be developed student-centered learning that is learning that activate and cause high curiosity. Implementable learning is a learning model with experiment / practice, problem solving, assignment or project, invention and simulation so that students find their own concept or material to be learned. The results of this learning will be more memorable and not easy to forget.
Keywords: Basic concept, Science education
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How French Students Meet the Environmental Challenges?
pp. 2327-2346 | Article Number: ijese.2017.157
Whilst the science education for the 21st century is meant to foster an engagement and an understanding of science in society and environmental problems, there is a need to examine those aspects and issues that are relevant (major issues, role of scientists and experts, role of the future...). However, little attention was paid to these concerns in the curriculum. Yet, young people’s views of the future reflect the sociopolitical concerns of the time (Hicks, 1996). In the present article, the purpose is to document to what extent students do agree with the statements about some environmental challenges (pollution, overuse of resources, global changes of the climate, future...) with a data from a questionnaire-based study involving students attending secondary school in France. This study forms part of a wider international survey, the Relevance of Science Education (ROSE) project, based at the University of Oslo. Our result show that French students are interesting in learning about pollution of water and air, but are not interesting in learning about practices that limit the effects of pollution and pesticides. Students seem to be unaware of the causal chain that is at the origin of pollution. Lange (2012) ensures the contribution of science partially to equip the citizen for democratic deliberation within particular contexts. However, environmental knowledge can be uncertain. This doubt maintains the democratic potential of the environmental issues, arousing controversies which are the lifestyle choices and the choices of society. Given these findings, we have to help students to build a relationship to the environment, more relevant on social and personal level, with more informed and located knowledge. A relationship renewed between humans and environment based on integrated designs of the future.
Keywords: gender, secondary schools, relationship to the environment, the Relevance of Science Education Project, engaging young people with environmental challenges
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Contamination levels of metals (Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb) in Patella rustica from the Moroccan Atlantic coast
Lalla Meryem IDRISSI AZZOUZI, Rachid Ben Aakame, Abdellah El Abidi, Mariam Naciri
pp. 2347-2361 | Article Number: ijese.2017.158
This study was carried out to determine the levels of some metal including copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in tissues of the mollusca gastropoda limpet (Patella rustica), using the standard atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) technique after mineralization method. These samples were collected from three different locations (Yacoub Al Mansour, Harhoura and Guy ville) of Moroccan Atlantic coast during four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The average ranges of elements concentrations measured in samples were: Yacoub Al Mansour coast (Cu: 0.46-2.19 μg/g; Cr: 0,60-2,21 μg/g; Cd: 0,32-1,06 μg/g and Pb: 0,47-1,30 μg/g), Harhoura coast: (Cu: 0.81-3.17 μg/g; Cr: 0,94-2,5 μg/g; Cd: 0,47-0,95 μg/g and Pb: 0,76-1,42 μg/g) and Guy ville coast (Cu: 1.24-4.14 μg/g; Cr: 0,87-3,98 μg/g; Cd: 0,56-1,18 μg/g and Pb: 1,08-2,13 μg/g). During all seasons and from different sampling sites, the results obtained indicate that metals concentration in Patella rustica tissues were distributed differently.
Keywords: Contamination assessment, Patella rustica, Gastropod molluscs, Metals, Moroccan Atlantic coast
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Gender Difference in Interpersonal Intelligence：A Meta-Analysis
Fang-Pin Lai, Kai-Hao Liu, Li-Ru Chen, Shao-Shiun Chang
pp. 2363-2373 | Article Number: ijese.2017.162
The aim of the study is to examine the literature of meta-analysis concerning whether interpersonal intelligence varies with the gender, verify the possible causes between them, end the debate of different perspective and analyze the influential factors of interpersonal intelligence development. In addition, by detail-to-detail testing the characteristic of the literatures, including the subject categories, published years, languages and published categories, the study analyzes the interference variables on the appearance of interpersonal intelligence. Using the meta-analysis, compiled from 2000 to 2016 published academic journals, through the inclusion, exclusion and search of the research guidelines. Proposed the research framework and empirical analysis, by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of the operation. Extract the main effect size of the literatures, and then analyze the overall average effect of Hedges's g. Based on the study found that interpersonal intelligence education to develop substantive recommendations, as references for practical and research workers.
Keywords: interpersonal intelligence, gender difference, meta-analysis
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Retrospective Tracer Study: Investigation of the Barriers and Fluidity Transdisciplinary to Develop Curriculum for Higher Teacher Education
Nurul Ulfatin, Amat Mukhadis
pp. 2375-2384 | Article Number: ijese.2017.161
Curriculum in higher education which prepare teacher candidates is considered as effort of engage in borderless transdisciplinary interaction to construct a collective and coherent understanding of disciplinary interconnectedness and interdependency, which will serve as the foundation for teaching, research, and engagement. Retrospective tracer study is methods for investigation to link the relationship and relevance of transdisciplinary which occurs at teachers’ workplace with transdisciplinary curriculum at the almamater.
Keywords: transdisciplinary curriculum, retrospective tracer study, integrated, higher education, preservice education
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Analysis of Drought Severity Level as a Hydrological Disaster Mitigation Effort in Sub-Watershed of Krueng Jreue, Aceh Besar Regency-Indonesia
Helmi, Hairul Basri, Sufardi & Helmi
pp. 2385-2400 | Article Number: ijese.2017.160
Drought affects the availability of water reserves in the soil in Krueng Jreue Sub-Watershed, for the benefit of agriculture as well as for human needs. There were three stages of analysis for the research of the severity of the Krueng Jreue drought, namely: (1) identify the rainfall station for the area of study. Monthly rainfall data used is the result of observation data for 10 years (2005–2014) from two stations of rainfalls; Indrapuri and Jantho, according to isohyets method analysis; (2) analysis of precipitation to obtain meteorological drought index of each station with the method of precipitation Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); and (3) analysis of interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) drought index values of each rainfall stations to get the spread of drought. The results of the analysis using the method of SPI scale 3 monthly (SPI-3), indicating that the historical rainfall in 2005–2014 not experiencing dry conditions, because during the 12 months from January-December for 10 years, only in June-July-August (JJA) are experiencing conditions slightly dry with average drought index between (-1,23) – (-0,39). The rest of September-October-November (SON), December-January-February (DJF) and March-April-Mai (MAM) experienced a medium (normal) condition, the value of SPI in range (0,99) – (-0,99). Hydrological disaster mitigation efforts in the zone of the severity of the drought with the criteria slightly dry can be done by means of structural and non-structural. Structurally it is done through optimizing the development of dams and building Krueng Jreue, rehabilitation and maintenance of the irrigation network. The storage of excess water in the rainy season is for use in the dry season. Non-structural way is by making predictions of drought, drought index map, agroforestry, planting water-efficient plants, the use of mulch and organic materials.
Keywords: Standardized Precipitation Index, The severity of the drought, The spread of drought, Hydrological disaster mitigation, Sub-Watershed of Krueng Jreue
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Historical processes of architectural transition in Ardabil’s Jome Mosque (The symbol of an Iranian Islamic architecture)
Habib Shahbazi Shiran
pp. 2423-2331 | Article Number: ijese.2017.163
Jame Mosque as a glorious building in a city which has exhibited an unknown and rich treasure of the art of architecture, culture and Islamic civilization, is not totally Seljuk but those parts of the Seljuk era, even today, are also its main augustness. In its completely distinctive spectrum, more than 1100 years of Iran’s architecture is transparent and in its lengthy life, there have been several wars and it has been damaged and recovered many times and nothing is remained of that. However, the mosque is there and its remained architecture is like a book that every time it is read, it provides a new meaning spectrum of the past.The remaining of the building is located in north-west of the current city and it is built on an artificial hill with 5 meters’ height with the absence of the other buildings and despite approaching disastrous events and happenings, it has maintained its strength. The noteworthy point is its scattered but pleasant architectural and functional decorations of the Ilkhani era being in full harmony and magnificent beatings of facades of the building are based on the mathematical calculations; however, those parts of the Seljuk era, even today, are also its main augustness. Jome Mosque which has been the highest building of the city, in its current condition, is composed of three related parts placing with distance and in an independent manner. 1- The dome is built as the mother cell and the Seljuk mosque’s base and during the time, the other elements are attached to it. 2-Porch which is currently placed as a mosque and its south side is ended to dome area though a big and high crater. 3- Steeple which is a large brick cylindrical building located in 16/43 meters of the western wall and along the middle axis of the mosque and its location is even more tragic tradition since it is a building which is totally separated and there is not any sign of its attachment to Seljuk’s building. In so doing, its tension with the mosque and its moral function in relation with the other elements of the building as well as its independency from the mosque attract the attention as a unique element.
Keywords: Ardabil, Jome Mosque, building, architecture, Seljuk
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