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Environmental Mental Models of College Students
Melissa R. Wuellner, Leslie Vincent, and Brandi Felts
pp. 105-115 | Article Number: ijese.2017.004
Primary and secondary students in the United States are provided environmental education in their curricula due in part to national legislation, but higher education, for many U.S. citizens, is the last opportunity to educate young adults about the environment and humans’ role in it in a formalized setting. Pre-college education and other life experiences or ways of learning can shape a student’s mental model of the environment. While some previous research has focused on understanding environmental mental models of primary and secondary students, only one study to date has evaluated models of college students. Further, no study has evaluated potential shifts in mental models because of taking a course or what specific factors shape these models prior to college. The objectives of this study were to assess environmental models of college students and determine whether a course on “Environmental Conservation” reinforces or influences students’ mental models by the end of the course. We compared environmental metal models at the start and end of our course using the Environments Task tool. Students were asked to provide pictorial and written descriptions of their mental models at both time periods. Additionally, photographs were used to explore student beliefs on environmental representations and questions were used to assess sources of prior environmental knowledge of students at the start of the semester. Results show that pictorial and written mental models differed from one another at the beginning as well as the end of the semester. More students identified humans as a part of the environment in their pictures by the end of the semester compared to the beginning, but no such shifts were noted in the written description. Students identified secondary school courses, life experiences such as growing up on a farm or ranch or hunting and fishing, and their family members as their primary sources of environmental information prior to taking the course. In total, these results indicate that mental models remain underdeveloped after this specific 16-week course and that these models may be more fixed by earlier educational experiences than previously believed. Recommendations for future environmental education are also provided.
Keywords: Mental models, environment, higher education
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Examining the Learning Outcomes Included in the Turkish Science Curriculum in Terms of Science Process Skills: A Document Analysis with Standards-Based Assessment
Umit Duruk, Abuzer Akgün, Ceylan Doğan, Fatma Gülsuyu
pp. 117-142 | Article Number: ijese.2017.005
Science process skills have provided a valuable chance for everyone to construct their own knowledge by means of scientific inquiry. If students are to understand what science is and how it actually works, then they should necessarily make use of their science process skills as well as scientific content knowledge compulsory to be learned in any science curriculums. As an important schooling item, science curriculums based on scientific literacy have been reoriented at times and aimed at providing students with a deeper understanding of science process skills and make them fully competent to deal with scientific process as far as possible. The present study took its inspiration for examining the role of science curriculum on science process skills from the purpose of investigating learning outcomes in it. The study was conducted in accordance with document analysis of Turkish Secondary School Science Curriculum revised in 2013. The analysis was operated by standards-based assessment of learning outcomes with the help of sentence-based criteria constructed by researchers. The results showed that the representation rate of science process skills for science curriculum varied with grade level and unit. Based on the results, the implications and limitations of the study and the directions for further study were discussed.
Keywords: Science education, science process skills, science curriculum, document analysis
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Science Content Knowledge of 5–6 Year Old Preschool Children
pp. 143-175 | Article Number: ijese.2017.006
The present study is a descriptive research in the scanning model. In the present study is research conducted to determine five to six-year-old children’s knowledge of science content, study group constitutes of 360 children attending preschool educational institutions in Burdur city center and their parents and teachers. In the study, Science Content Standards Scale (SCSS) Trial Form developed by Taştepe (2012) was used. SCSS consists of a total 31 items and three subscales including Life Science, Physical Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences processing areas. SCSS-Trial Form was filled at the end of May 2015 by group teachers giving children training throughout the whole academic year. Group score differences were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Difference among groups is tested using Scheffe and Tamhane techniques. While statistically significant differences are observed among children’s scores obtained from SCSS total and sub-dimensions according to age and duration of preschool education, and all sub-dimensions as per number of siblings, there are not any statistically significant differences among children’s scores total and sub-dimension according to gender and mothers and fathers’ age. While difference among children’s scores obtained from physical sciences, earth and space sciences is observed in favor of firstborn, no differences in life sciences and total score are not determined. There is a statistically significant difference between children’s scores in physical and life sciences sub-dimensions as per mothers and father’ status of education, and physical sciences sub-dimensions as per mothers’ occupational group but there are not any significant differences determined in as per father’ occupational group.
Keywords: Preschool, kindergarten, science content knowledge, teacher and parents
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|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Assessing the Validity of Multiple-choice Questions in Measuring Fourth Graders’ Ability to Interpret Graphs about Motion and Temperature
Mehmet Dulger and Hasan Deniz
pp. 177-193 | Article Number: ijese.2017.007
The purpose of this paper is to assess the validity of multiple-choice questions in measuring fourth grade students’ ability to interpret graphs related to physical science topics such as motion and temperature. We administered a test including 6 multiple-choice questions to 28 fourth grade students. Students were asked to explain their thinking in writing for each question. In addition, we interviewed all 28 students and asked them to justify their answer for each question by thinking out loud. We found that a significant number of students were not able to provide appropriate explanations for their correct answers. Interestingly, however, a significant number of students were able to provide appropriate explanations even though they initially selected an incorrect response. As a result of this study, we suggest caution in using multiple-choice questions as a single data source to assign grades or to make other important decisions about student achievement.
Keywords: Assessment, multiple-choice questions, elementary students, validity
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School Gardening in Oman: A Pilot Project with Grade 7 Students
Abdulla Ambusaidi, Rashid Al-Yahyai, Subhashni Taylor, and Neil Taylor
pp. 195-211 | Article Number: ijese.2017.008
The Sultanate of Oman is beginning to experience a rapid increase in what are termed ‘lifestyle diseases’, most notably diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These appear to be linked to increasing poor dietary habits, particularly an increase in the consumption of ‘junk’ foods and a more sedentary lifestyle, amongst the younger generation. In a number of Western contexts, school gardens have been shown to improve not only student attitudes to diet but also improved learning and affective outcomes. A pilot school gardening project involving a mixed method quasi-experimental design was undertaken in Oman with a number of Grade 7 classes. While the outcomes of this pilot study should be treated tentatively, the quantitative findings indicate that employing school gardens as an educational resource might improve learning outcomes in the area of science skill development. The qualitative findings suggested that the project had a positive impact on the affective domain of students and in some cases encouraged them to pursue healthier eating habits. Other findings from the study were rather mixed.
Keywords: Oman, school gardening, diet, pilot study, mixed methods
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Understanding how Preservice Teachers’ Fear, Perceived Danger and Disgust Affects the Incorporation of Arachnid Information into the Elementary Science Classroom
Ron Wagler and Amy Wagler
pp. 213-231 | Article Number: ijese.2017.009
Arachnids are predatory arthropods that are beneficial to humans in many ways, with common examples including spiders and scorpions. Despite the importance of arachnids to global ecosystems, the fear of spiders in specific human groups is well documented. Arachnids are a very diverse class (i.e., Arachnida) encompassing eleven extant orders with over 100,000 described species but little is known about other emotions and beliefs humans have towards most other arachnid orders. Because of the importance of arachnids to global ecosystems and the services they provide to humanity, elementary children should learn about arachnids. However, prior research shows that preservice elementary teachers do not plan to include information about arachnids in their classrooms. The current study analyzed the effect a living arachnid workshop had on United States (US) kindergarten through sixth grade (K-6) preservice elementary teachers’ emotions and beliefs towards living arachnids and sought to see if the arachnid workshop could reduce the participants fear, perceived danger and disgust towards arachnids and increase their likelihood of incorporating information about arachnids into their science classroom. Five living arachnids from five of the eleven extant arachnid orders were used in the study, which is the most biodiverse group of arachnids used in a study to assess the emotions and beliefs humans have toward arachnids. This study employs a longitudinal design (i.e., pretest, posttest 1 and posttest 2) with randomly assigned treatment and control groups thereby giving the researchers the ability to make casual claims and assess the effect of the intervention over a longer period of time. The treatment group exhibited a steady and maintained decrease in the levels of fear, perceived danger and disgust across the time points, while the control group exhibited little change in these responses. A positive change in the likelihood of incorporation for each of the animals across time for the treatment group was found, while the control group showed little or no change in these responses across time. Implications of the study and future research are presented that are applicable to preservice elementary teachers, university science education instructors and teacher training programs.
Keywords: Arachnids, belief, danger, disgust, fear, perceived danger, preservice elementary teachers
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Study the Relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Structure
Gholamreza Rahimi & Shirko Khosravi Nia
pp. 233-241 | Article Number: ijese.2017.010
The purpose of this research was studying the relationship between organizational justice and organizational structure in the state agencies of Bokan city. The research method was descriptive-survey. The statistical population included all employees of the government offices of Bokan city which they are 2754 persons. The number of samples using Morgan table obtained 337 people. The inventory of organizational justice of Nie Hoof and Morman (1993) was used in order to data gathering and Robinz (1987) inventory was used for measuring organizational structure. The validity of the questionnaires was confirmed by a bunch of professors of management and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha. In order to analyze the data Pearson correlation coefficient and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. The results showed that there is significant negative relationship between organizational justice and organizational structure.
Keywords: Organizational Justice, Organizational Structure, Formality, Complexity
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The Impact of Organizational Culture on Implicit Knowledge Sharing In the Melli Bank of West Azerbaijan Province
Nader Bohlooli Zeinab , Azad Azizpour Dashtamian, Shirko Khosravi Nia
pp. 243-251 | Article Number: ijese.2017.011
One of the main activities in the field of knowledge management is knowledge sharing process because through which employees can have done actions to improve competitive advantage. Effective knowledge sharing among employees can have a significant impact on improving the quality of research and development activities. For this reason, creating desire and intention of knowledge sharing among employees is of particular importance because lead to share knowledge with them. The purpose of this study was to study the impact of organizational culture on implicit knowledge sharing in the Melli Bank of West Azerbaijan province. The method of research was descriptive-correlation. The population of the study was the staff of Melli Bank of West Azerbaijan province that their number was 990. The samples were obtained276 people using Cochran's formula that were selected as randomly sampling. To gather data organizational Culture Inventory of Robbins and knowledge sharing an inventory of Dickson (1998) were used. For data analysis, Pearson and regression test were used. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between organizational culture and its dimensions with implicit knowledge sharing among employees of the Melli Bank of West Azerbaijan province ( P=0.05)
Keywords: Organizational Culture, Sharing Implicit Knowledge, Creativity, Leadership
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Identification and Assessment of Human Error in CNG Stations with SHERPA Technique
Parisa Dadgar, Ghazaleh Monazami Tehrani, Hasti Borgheipour
pp. 253-265 | Article Number: ijese.2017.012
Human error is known to be the primary and principal causes of accidents in high risk industries such as oil and gas industries. This study has been mainly conducted because of the importance and sensitive nature of these industries in identifying and assessing human error in CNG stations. This descriptive-sectional study was performed using SHERPA technique in order to govern and assess human errors in CNG stations of Khoy County - Iran. Initially, desirable information was collected using task observation and interviews with safety responsibilities, authorities of units and operators. Subsequently, through HTA (Hierarchical Task Analysis) the critical tasks were defined. Finally, human errors in each critical tasks were recognized and assessed using SHERPA technique (systematically human error reduction and prediction method). Analysis of SHERPA questionnaires exhibited that, the total number of identified human errors in CNG job positions were equivalent to 113 errors, thereby highest and lowest percentages of errors were action error (51.33%) and communication error (3.54%), respectively. Based on the results, (63.7 %) of the identified errors risks were reported intolerable. In order to prevent and decrease the identified errors, and their consequences, reducing the rate of these errors is essential. In addition, appropriate control measures in the form of hardware changes in equipment design, periodic training courses and updating work instructions, and stress management as well as avoiding fatigue are to be prioritized towards corrective actions. Moreover, according to the results, the action errors with highest rate of errors should be considered for priority control measures.
Keywords: Human error, Risk assessment, CNG, HTA, SHERPA
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Identifying and Prioritizing Indicators of Macro-Environmental Factors in Entry of Semnan Plaster Plants into the Markets of Neighboring Countries
Morteza Maleki Minbashrazgah, Azim Zarei, Hadi Ghazvini
pp. 267-278 | Article Number: ijese.2017.013
The present study aimed to prioritize indicators of macro-environmental factors in entry of Semnan plaster plants into the markets of Iran’s neighboring countries. This study was an applied research. The statistical pollution included business unit managers and employees of Semnan plaster plants. The sample consisted of 30 people based on the purposive sampling. Data were collected by a questionnaire and analyzed using Expert Choice Software. The results showed that the macro-political factors (weight = 0.496), economic (weight = 0.287) and cultural (weight = 0.217) have the highest importance, respectively. In addition, sub-criteria were prioritized based on high tariff and nontariff barriers, political instability in foreign markets, exchange rate fluctuations, strict laws on foreign markets, unfamiliarity with foreign business, deteriorating economic conditions outside the country, differences in dialect, and cultural and social characteristics.
Keywords: export, plaster plants, macro-environment
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Analysis of Effective Factors on Knowledge Transfer in Response to Organizational Crisis (Case Study: Employees of Kerman Governor)
pp. 279-289 | Article Number: ijese.2017.014
While risk and uncertainty in business environments are decreasing because of uncertain economic situation, effects of organizational crisis become stronger. Nowadays, all companies and organization are under the influence of big and small crises and the only way to predict and rescue organizations from these crises is using knowledge. If the knowledge got transferred to persons who need, risk of organizational crises can be decreased. Knowledge, as the most important source, provides an appropriate opportunity for organization to resist against crises. This matter needs some situations in order that knowledge spreads out between all staff and all who want. This research is about discovering channels of knowledge transfer. This research was done by extensive library studies and other resources and opinions of staff via interview and questionnaire and then collected data analyzed by the software SPSS, binomial tests and Friedman variance analysis. Research results show that the most important channels of knowledge transfer in order of preference are: documentation, information and communication infrastructure, advice using system, leadership, teamwork, job rotation.
Keywords: organizational crisis, knowledge transfer, knowledge transfer channels, crisis management
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Evaluate the Relationship between Risk Management and Working Capital Management in Companies Accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange during the Time Period of 2010-2015
Reza Rostami, Ebrahim Mansoori
pp. 291-301 | Article Number: ijese.2017.015
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between risk management and working capital management in companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange during the time period of 2010-2015. The sample includes total of 104 companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. To test research hypothesis, risk management is considered as the independent variable, and working capital management is considered as the dependent variable. The results of panel data analysis showed that there is a significant inverse relationship between risk management and working capital indicators. That is, managers increase the level of investment in working capital to decrease the level of risk. Moreover, the results indicate that both operation working capital and liquid working capital is affected by risk management.
Keywords: Risk Management, Working Capital Management, Cash Conversion Cycle, Net Liquid Balance
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Examine how to use data mining in updating the required data for decision making of managers of Telecommunication Company of West Azarbaijan province
Gholamreza Rahimi, Seeyed Khezer Seeyed Mohammadi
pp. 303-310 | Article Number: ijese.2017.016
The objective of this research was examine how to use data mining in updating the required data for decision making of managers of Telecommunication Company of West Azarbaijan province. The method of the research was survey-descriptive. The Statistical Society of the research were managers, assistants and financial managers of Telecommunication Company of West Azarbaijan province which they were 43 people. Due to limitations of statistical Society Sarmary method was used for select the sample.Taghavi Fard et al questionnaires (2007) was used for collect information about the measurement data mining. Scott and Bruce (1995) questionnaires were used for measuring decision making of managers. Comments of supervisors and a number of professors in management field were used to validity of the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was used to reliability of the questionnaire which is obtained 0.89 and 0.91 respectively for data mining and decision making questionnaires that indicates the desirable reliability of the questionnaires. To analyze the data, Pearson correlation and regression test were used. Results indicated that data mining has positive and meaningful effect on updating required information for decision making and the aspects of decision making of managers.
Keywords: Data Mining, Decision Trees, Clustering, Decision Making
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Surveying the Relationship between Addiction to Social Networks and Emotional Maturity in Students
Hossein Komeili Sani,Hakimeh Mohammadzadeh, Azam Jahangirimehr, Masoomeh Salehi Kamboo, Abdolmahdi Shabesi Pour
pp. 311-320 | Article Number: ijese.2017.017
Social networks provide an environment for virtual communication and play a key and ever growing role in quality of mental health. Emotional maturity is a key effective element of emotions control, behavior, and improvement of mental health. The present paper is aimed at surveying the relationship between addiction to social networks and emotional maturity of students. A descriptive analytical study was carried with participation of 181 students in the Faculty of Medical Science, Shoushtar, Iran in 2016; the participants were selected through random sampling. Data gathering tool was a researcher-designed questionnaire of addiction to social network and Yashvir Singh & Bahargava’s Emotional Maturity Scale. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS (16).As the results showed, people with severe addiction to social networks had lower scores in terms of general emotional maturity and its subscales comparing with those with moderate addiction to social networks (p<0.001). Gender had no significant effect on the level of addiction to social networks (p = 0.347). Except for the subscale emotional stability, which was identical between two genders, women had better scores in terms of general emotional maturity and the subscales. Level of severity of addiction to social networks was related to emotional maturity of individuals. This relationship can be taken into account in preventing and treating addiction to social networks.
Keywords: Addiction to Social Networks, Emotional Maturity, Students
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Marital satisfaction of student marriage and its relationship with demographic characteristics among students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Bahador Mehraki, Atefeh Hosseini, M.Amin Hosseini, Hamid Maghami
pp. 321-327 | Article Number: ijese.2017.018
The aim of this study was to explain the relationship between marital satisfaction with personal (demographic) characteristics of students participating in student wedding ceremonies. Accordingly, this study is regarded as an applied research in terms of its objectives and a descriptive-correlational research in terms of method of data collection. The research population consisted of couples studying at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (at least one of the couples being a student) who attended the student wedding ceremony. The sample consisted of 88 students who started their shared life with the celebration of student marriage and were selected through census. The instruments used to collect the data were the researcher-made demographic factors questionnaire and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale whose reliability and validity were at an acceptable range. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between the participants’ demographic characteristics and their marital satisfaction. There was also no significant difference between the male and female participants in terms of marital satisfaction.
Keywords: marital satisfaction, personal (demographic) characteristics, student marriage
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