Special Issue - (2016)
Special Issue - (2015)
Special Issue - (2012)
pp. 1067-1095 | Article Number: ijese.2017.072
Published Online: June 18, 2017
Article Views: 720 | Article Download: 466
Energy literacy is indispensable for a sustainable society, which is fostered and improved by formal and informal energy education. To achieve the goal of energy education, which develops a well-informed public with positive attitudes toward energy conservation and the ability to make appropriate decisions regarding future energy choices, we must understand the status of students’ energy literacy and its conceptual structure. By employing and modifying the energy literacy framework and instrument developed by DeWaters & Powers (2013), energy literacy and its structural model for students in Japan were investigated through a survey for 1316 lower secondary students (ages 13–15) in 2014. It was found that female students and students who have family discussions about energy-related issues scored higher than their counterparts. Students in Fukushima scored lower than those in Tokyo and Kyoto/Nagasaki. The energy literacy structure model was described by six predictors by structure equation modeling, where energy-saving behavior was predicted by both the awareness of consequences and the ascription of responsibility. Both the awareness of consequences and the ascription of responsibility were predicted by basic energy knowledge through the cognition of environmental issues. The prediction of energy-saving behavior by the awareness of consequences indicates the role of bonding between the relevant knowledge on energy and the environmental issues and energy-saving behavior. A moderation analysis found that (1) the effect of the cognition of environmental issues on responsibility depends on gender, and the magnitude of its effect did not necessarily depend on the amount of knowledge; (2) the indirect effect of responsibility toward energy-related issues on energy-saving behavior through energy-use conscious behavior seems to decrease with grade progression; and (3) the indirect effect of the awareness of consequences on energy-saving behavior through energy-use conscious behavior depends on the region.
Keywords: Energy literacy, Energy literacy structure model, Moderation analysis, Lower secondary school students in Japan
Adachi, N., Adamovitch, V., Adjovi, Y., Aida, K., Akamatsu, H. Akiyama, S.,... Zuclarelli, E. (2016). Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus ―the ‘D-shuttle’ project―Journal of Radiological Protection, 36, 49–66. doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/36/1/49
Akitsu Y., Ishihara K. N., Okumura H., & Yamasue E. (2016). An Investigation of Energy Literacy among Lower Secondary School Students in Japan: A Comparison with the US (NY State) Measuring of Knowledge, Affect, and Behavior. Journal of Energy and Environmental Education, 10(2), 15–28.
Anable, J., Lane, B., & Kelay, T. (2006). An Evidence Base Review of Public Attitudes to Climate Change and Transport Behaviour: Final Report, Department for Transport, London. Retrieved from http://www.pdfwww.china-up.com:8080/international/case/case/1457.pdf
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs: NJ, Prentice-Hall.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.
Ajzen, I. (2006). Theory of Planned Behavior Model Diagram. Retrieved from http://people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.diag.html, Accessed Mar. 2, 2016.
Ajzen, I., Joyce, N., Sheikh, S., & Cote, N. G. (2011). Knowledge and the Prediction of Behavior: The Role of Information Accuracy in the Theory of Planned Behavior. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 33(2), 101–117. doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2011.568834
Ajzen, I. (2011a). The theory of planned behaviour: Reactions and reflections. Psychology & Health, 26(9), 1113–1127. doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2011.613995
Ajzen, I. (2017). Theory of Planned Behavior with Background Factors. Retrieved from http://people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.background.html, Accessed May 8, 2017.
Ayers, J. B. (1976). Rural Elementary Children's Attitudes Toward the Energy Crisis. School, Science, and Mathematics, 76(3), 238–240.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215. doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Barrow, L. H., & Morrisey, J. T. (1987). Ninth-grade students’ attitudes toward energy: a comparison between Maine and New Brunswick. Journal of Environmental Education, 18, 15–21. doi.org/10.1080/00958964.1987.9942735
Barrow, L. H., & Morrisey, J. T. (1989). Energy Literacy of Ninth-Grade Students: A Comparison Between Maine and New Brunswick. Journal of Environmental Education, 20(2), 22–25, doi.org/10.1080/00958964.1989.9943027.
Benson, J., & Clark, F. (1982). A Guide for Instrument Development and Validation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 36(12), 789–800. doi.org/10.5014/ajot.36.12.789
Bittle, S., Rochkind, J., & Ott, A. (2009). The Energy Learning Curve, Public Agenda. The National Environmental Education & Training, Retrieved from http://publicagendaarchives.org/press-releases/americans-give-us-low-grades-key-energy-challenges, Accessed Oct.14, 2014.
Buffum, P. S., Lobene, E. V., Frankosky, M. H., Boyer, K. E., Wiebe, E. N., & Lester, J. C. (2015). A Practical Guide to Developing and Validating Computer Science Knowledge Assessments with Application to Middle School. Proceedings of the 46th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education - SIGCSE ’15, 622–627, doi.org/10.1145/2676723.2677295
Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (2005). Public Opinion Survey on Energy. Cabinet Office, Retrieved from http://survey.gov-online.go.jp/h17/h17-energy/index.html, Accessed Jan. 10, 2014.
Chapin, J. R. (1982). Japanese and American Youth’s Knowledge and Attitudes on Energy. Journal of Social Studies Research, 6(1), 17–21.
Chawla, L. (1999). Life Paths Into Effective Environmental Action. The Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 15–26. doi.org/10.1080/0095896990959862835
Chen, K-L, Liu, S-Y, & Chen, P-H. (2015). Assessing multidimensional energy literacy of secondary students using contextualized assessment. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 10(2), 201–218. doi.org/10.12973/ijese.2015.241a
Chen, S-J, Chou, Y-C, Yen, H-Y, & Chao, Y-L. (2015). Investigating and structural modeling energy literacy of high school students in Taiwan. Energy Efficiency, 8(4), 791-808. doi.org/10.1007/s12053-015-9327-5
COP 21, United Nations (2015). Adoption of the Paris Agreement. Conference of the Parties on Its Twenty-First Session, 21932 (December), 32. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/cop21/eng/l09r01.pdf, Accessed Feb. 4, 2016.
Cotton, D., Miller, W., Winter, J., Bailey, I., & Sterling, S. (2015). Developing students’ energy literacy in higher education. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 16(4), 456–473, doi.org/10.1108/IJSHE-12-2013-0166
Craig, C., & Allen, M. W. (2015). The impact of curriculum-based learning on environmental literacy and energy consumption with implications for policy. Utilities Policy, 35, 41–49. doi.org/10.1016/j.jup.2015.06.011
Cunnningham, G. (1997). Assessment In The Classroom: Constructing And Interpreting Texts. Routledge Taylor & Francis, ISBN-10: 0750707321, ISBN-13: 978-0750707329.
Curry, T. E., Ansolabehere, S., & Herzog, H. (2007). A Survey of Public Attitudes Towards Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Technologies in the United States: Analyses of 2006 Results, 47. Retrieved from https://sequestration.mit.edu/pdf/LFEE_2007_01_WP.pdf, Accessed on Sept. 20, 2016.
DeWaters, J. E., & Powers, S. E. (2008). Energy literacy among middle and high school youth. Proceedings of the 38th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Saratoga Springs, NY, 22–25. doi.org/10.1109/FIE.2008.4720280
DeWaters, J. E., & Powers, S. E. (2011). Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State (USA): A measure of knowledge, affect, and behavior. Energy Policy, 39(3), 1699–1710. doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.12.0496
DeWaters, J. E., & Powers, S. E. (2013). Establishing measurement criteria for an energy literacy questionnaire. The Journal of Environmental Education, 44(1), 38–55. doi.org/10.1080/00958964.2012.711378
DeWaters, J. E., Qaqish, B., Graham, M. E., & Powers, S. E. (2013a). Designing an Energy Literacy Questionnaire for middle and high school youth. The Journal of Environmental Education, 44(1), 56–78. doi.org/10.1080/00958964.2012.682615
DeWaters, J. E (2013b). Energy Literacy Survey-A Broad Assessment of Attitudes and Behaviors- Middle School issue. Accessed 25 Jan 2014, Retrieved from http://www.clarkson.edu/cses/research/test_form_MS_V3_revised2013.pdf. Accessed on Aug. 10, 2013.
Dunlap, R. E., Van Liere, K. D, Mertig, A. G., & Jones, R. E. (2000). Measuring Endorsement of the New Ecological Paradigm: A Revised NEP Scale. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 425–442. doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00176
Dwyer, C. (2011). The Relationship between Energy Literacy and Environmental Sustainability. Low Carbon Economy, 2(3), 123-137. doi.org/10.4236/lce.2011.23016
Ebel, R. L. (1979). Essentials of Educational Measurement (3rd Edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: the Prentice-Hall education series.
Farhar, B. C. (1994). Trends in us public perceptions and preferences on energy and environmental policy. Annual Review of Energy & the Environment, 19, 211–239.
Farhar, B.C. (1996). Energy and the environment: the public view. Renewable Energy Report Issue Brief No. 3, 1–11. doi.org/10.1146/annurev.eg.19.110194.001235
Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley .
Fukutoku, Y. (2009). Teaching of Radiation for Elementary and Junior High Students in Kagoshima and Its Effects on Their Radiation Literacy. Japanese Journal of Radiation Safety Management, 8(2), 133–140. Retrieved from http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/ 130001351124, Accessed on Jul. 20, 2013
Fukutoku, Y. (2009a). 鹿児島県下小・中学生の放射線の理解に係る科学的リテラシーの調査. Japanese Journal of Radiation Safety Management, 8(2), 141–148. Retrieved from http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/130001351125, Accessed on Jul. 20, 2013
Fukuyama, T. (2008). Baseline survey on junior high school students’ knowledge and interest concerning energy in Ehime prefecture. The Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Ehime University, 55 (1), 145–151.
Gambro, J.S., & Switzky, H. N. (1996). A national survey of high school students’ environmental knowledge. Journal of Environmental Education, 30(2), 15–22.
Gambro, J.S., & Switzky, H. N. (1999). Variables associated with American high school students’ knowledge of environmental Issues related to energy and pollution. Journal of Environmental Education, 27(3), 28–33. doi.org/10.1080/00958964.1996.9941464
Georgia, Energy & Gas (2009). Public Agenda: Americans give U. S. low grades on key energy challenges. Retrieved from http://gaenergy.blogspot.jp/2009/05/public-agenda-americans-give-us-low.html, Accessed Apr. 27, 2016.
Gerbing, D. W., & Hamilton, J. G. (1996). Viability of exploratory factor analysis as a precursor to confirmatory factor analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 3(1), (January 1996), 62–72, doi.org/10.1080/10705519609540030.
Hashiba, T. (2010). Systematization of Energy Environment Education and Utilization for building a mutually rewarding relationship between the communities and Nuclear Power station. A Dissertation Submitted to the University of Fukui for the Degree of Doctor of Engineering, 1–114.
Hayabuchi, Y. (2008). Spillover Effect of Environmental Education. Kyoto, Japan: NAKANISHIYA SHUPPAN CO., LTD.
Hayes A. F. (2013). Lecture of ‘The Modern Integration of Mediation and Moderation Analysis.’ Concordia University John Molson School of Business, Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lb8M-eQzL60, Accessed Feb. 8, 2016.
Hayes, A. F. (2013a). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Hayes, A. F. (2014). PROCESS for SPSS. The Ohio State University, Release 2.13.2. WWW.afhayes.com, documentation in Appendix A of Hayes (2013), WWW.guilford.com/p/hayes3, Accessed Dec. 15, 2015.
Hayes, A. F. (2015). An Index and Test of Linear Moderated Mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50(1), 1–22, doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2014.962683.
Hayes, B. C. (2001). Gender, Scientific Knowledge, and Attitudes toward the Environment: A Cross-National Analysis. Political Research Quarterly, 54(3), 657–671. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/449275?seq=1&cid=pdf-reference#references_tab_contents, Accessed on Oct 10, 2016.
Herrmann-abell, & C. F., Deboer, G. E. (2011). Investigating Students' Understanding of Energy Transformation, Energy Transfer, and Conservation of Energy Using Standards-Based Assessment Items. The 2011 NARST Annual Conference, Orland, FL, Technical report. 1-13. Retrieve from http://www.project2061.org/publications/2061connections/2011/media/herrmann-abell_narst_2011.pdf, Accessed on May. 10, 2016.
Hines, J. M., Hungerford, H. R., Tomera, A. N. (1987). Analysis and Synthesis of Research on Responsible Environmental Behavior: A Meta-Analysis, The Journal of Environmental Education, 118(2), 1–8.
Hiramatsu, A., Kurisu, K., Nakamura, H., Teraki, S., & Hanaki, K. (2014). Spillover Effect on Families Derived from Environmental Education for Children. Low Carbon Economy, 5, 40–50. doi.org/10.4236/lce.2014.52005
Holmes, B. (1978). Energy Knowledge and Attitudes: A National Assessment of Energy Awareness among Young Adults. National Assessment of Educational Progress, Colorado.
Hu, M.-L. M., Horng, J.-S., Teng, C.-C. C., & Yen, C.-D. (2013). Assessing students’ low carbon literacy by Ridit IPA approach. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 13, 202–212. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2013.09.006
Hungerford, H. R., & Volk, T. L. (1990). Changing Learner Behavior through Environmental Education. Journal of Environmental Education, 21(3), 8–21. doi.org/10.1080/00958964.1990.10753743
ICEEE: The Information Center for Energy and Environment Education (2013). The Guideline for Energy and Environment Education, 9. Retrieved from http://www.iceee.jp/, Accessed Apr. 20, 2016.
JAEEE: Japan Association of Energy and Environmental Education, https://www.jaeee.jp/
JAERO: Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization (2017). Public opinion poll on nuclear energy use, year of 2016, p.67 and p.115. Retrieved from http://www.jaero.or.jp/data/01jigyou/tyousakenkyu28.html, Accessed May 6, 2017.
JAPAN TODAY (2011). TEPCO begins power blackouts. © 2016 GPlusMedia Co., Ltd. Retrieved from https://www.japantoday.com/category/national/view/tokyo-power-outages-to-start-later-than-planned-trains-reduce-services, Accessed Dec 18, 2016
Jensen, J. O. (2008). Measuring consumption in households: Interpretations and strategies. Ecological Economics, 68(1-2), 353–361, doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.03.016
Jurin, R. R., & Fox-Parrish, L. (2008). Factors in Helping Educate about Energy Conservation. Environmental Education & Communication, 7(3), 66–75. doi.org/10.1080/15330150802502130
JSF: The Japan Science Foundation (2016). Call for the Energy Education Model Schools Project in 2016. Retrieved from http://www.energy-modelschool.jp/, Accessed Apr. 20, 2016.
Karpudewan, M., Ponniah, J., & Ahmad, A. N. (2016). Project-Based Learning: An Approach to Promote Energy Literacy Among Secondary School Students. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25(2), 229–237. doi.org/10.1007/s40299-015-0256-z
KeTTHA: Kementerian Tenaga, Teknologi Hijau Dan Air (2009). Centre for Education and Training in Renewable Energy. Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Retrieve from www.kettha.gov.my, Accessed Aug. 1, 2016.
Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research, 8, 239–260. doi.org/10.1080/13504620220145401
Koriyama city (2015). Draft of Koriyama population vision. Retrieved from https://www.city.koriyama.fukushima.jp/063000/koho/documents/jinkouvision.pdf, Accessed Apr. 30, 2016.
Koriyama city (2015a). Population by district and age. Retrieved from https://www.city.koriyama.fukushima.jp/062000/toke/chiku.html, Accessed Apr. 30, 2016.
Klöckner, C. A. (2013). A comprehensive model of the psychology of environmental behaviour-A meta-analysis. Global Environmental Change, 23(5), 1028–1038. doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.05.014
Kuhn, D. J. (1979). Study of the Attitudes of Secondary School Students toward Energy-Related Issues. (L. E. Klopfer, Ed.) Science education 63(5), 609–620. JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
Lay, Y.-F., Khoo, C.-H., Treagust, D. F., & Chandrasegaran, A. L. (2013). Assessing secondary school students’ understanding of the relevance of energy in their daily lives. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 8(1), 199–215. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1008601.pdf, Accessed Sept. 15, 2014.
Lee, L.-S., Lee, Y.-F., Altschuld, J. W., & Pan, Y.-J., (2015). Energy literacy: Evaluating knowledge, affect, and behavior of students in Taiwan. Energy Policy, 76, 98–106. doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2014.11.012
Lawrenz, F.,& Dantchik, A. (1985). Attitudes toward Energy among Students in Grades 4, 7 and High School. School Science and Mathematics, 85(3), 189–202.
Lawrenz, F. (1988). Prediction of student energy knowledge and attitudes. School Science and Mathematics, 88, 543.
Lutzenhiser, L. (1993). Social and Behavioral Aspects of Energy Use. Annual Review of Energy Environment, 18, 247–289. Retrieve from http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.eg.18.110193.001335, Accessed on Dec. 12, 2014.
METI: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan, (2014). About the Energy Education Model Schools Project, (Japanese only). Retrieved from http://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/category/others/tyousakouhou/kyouiku/jisenkou/, Accessed Apr. 20, 2016.
Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2002). Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools, Curriculum Specifications, SCIENCE Form 2. Retrieved from http://smjk.edu.my/attach//resource/9380c5f9992a4f5ec34261b1ad611409-hsp_maths_f2.pdf, Accessed Dec. 25, 2016.
Morioka, K. (Ed.) (2001). Guidebook for social investigation. Toshima, Tokyo: Nippon Hyoron-Sha Co., Ltd.
MEMORVA (2010-2015). Ranking of National Achievement test in Japan. Source from NIER: National Institute for Educational Policy Research. Retrieved from http://memorva.jp/ranking/japan/gakuryoku_test_chuu_2015_h27.php, Accessed on Apr. 2, 2016.
NEETF: The National Environmental Education & Training Foundation (2005). Understanding Environmental Literacy in America and Making it a Reality. 3 year report 2002/2003/2004, Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED522820.pdf, Accessed on Oct. 20, 2014.
Opitz, S. T., Harms, U., Neumann, K., Kowalzik, K., & Frank, A. (2015). Students’ Energy Concepts at the Transition Between Primary and Secondary School. Research in Science Education, 45(5), 691–715. doi.org/10.1007/s11165-014-9444-8
Parisi, D., Taquino, M., Grice, S. M., & Gill, D. A. (2004). Civic responsibility and the environment: Linking local conditions to community environmental activeness. Society and Natural Resources, 17(2), 97–112. doi.org/10.1080/08941920490261212
Pe’er, S., Goldman, D., & Yavetz, B. (2007). Environmental Literacy in Teacher Training, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Environmental Behavior of Beginning Students. The Journal of Environmental Education, 39(1), 45–59. doi.org/10.3200/JOEE.39.1.45-59
Qaqish, B. (2005). Eighth Annual 2005 National Human Services Training Evaluation Symposium. University of California, Berkeley, 100.
Rajecki, D.W. (1982). Attitudes: themes and advances. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Roy, J., Dowd, A-M., Muller, A., Pal, S., & Prata, N. (2012). Lifestyles, Well-Being and Energy. (S. Lemmet, Ed.) Global Energy Assessment. doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511793677.027
Schultz, W. P. (2001). The Structure of Environmental Concern: Concern for Self, Other People, and the Biosphere. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21(4), 327–339. doi.org/10.1006/jevp.2001.0227
Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A Beginner’s Guide to Structural Equation Modeling (3rd ed.). 164, New York, London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. doi.org/10.1002/9781118133880.hop202023
Schwartz, S. H. (1977). Normative Influences on Altruism. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Norma, 10, 221–279, New York, N.Y.: Academic Press.
Stern, P. C., Dietz, T., & Guagnano, G. A. (1995). The new ecological paradigm in social-psychological context. Environment and Behavior, 27(6), 723–743. doi.org/10.1177/0013916595276001
Stern, P. C., Dietz, T., Abel, T., Guagnano, G. A., & Kalof, L. (1999). A value belief norm theory of support for social movements: The case of environmental concern. Human Ecology Review, 6(2), 81–97. doi.org/10.2307/2083693
Stern, P. C. (2000). Toward a Coherent Theory of Environmentally Significant Behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 407–424. doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00175
Tanabe, S., & Kado H. (2006). Energy and ecology education in primary, junior and senior high schools of Kagoshima and their students’ awareness. Bulletin of the educational research and practice, Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University, Japan, 16, 107–118.
Teksoz, G., Sahin, E., & Tekkaya-Oztekin, C. (2011). Modeling Environmental Literacy of University Students. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21(1), 157–166. doi.org/10.1007/s10956-011-9294-3
The University of Washington, The Office of Education Assessment, (2005). ‘Item Analysis,’ SCOREPAK®: ITEM ANALYSIS. Retrieved from https://www.washington.edu/oea/services/scanning_scoring/scoring/item_analysis.html, Accessed Dec. 18, 2015.
Van Raaij, W. F., & Verhallen, T. M. M. (1983). A behavioral model of residential energy use. Journal of Economic Psychology, 3(1), 39–63. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/T_Verhallen/publication/4850450_A_behavioral_model_of_residential_energy_use/links/02e7e52e66db390ca3000000.pdf, Accessed Oct. 30, 2016.
van Riper, C. J., & Kyle, G. T. (2014). Understanding the internal processes of behavioral engagement in a national park: A latent variable path analysis of the value-belief-norm theory. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 288–297. doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.03.002
Zaiontz, C. Real Statistics Using Excel, Cronbach's Alpha. Retrieved from http://www.real-statistics.com/reliability/cronbachs-alpha/, Accessed Jan. 6, 2016.
Zografakis, N., Menegaki, A. N., & Tsagarakis, K. P. (2008). Effective education for energy efficiency. Energy Policy, 36(8), 3216–3222. doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.04.021