Special Issue - (2016)
Special Issue - (2015)
Special Issue - (2012)
pp. 117-142 | Article Number: ijese.2017.005
Published Online: February 01, 2017
Article Views: 719 | Article Download: 653
Science process skills have provided a valuable chance for everyone to construct their own knowledge by means of scientific inquiry. If students are to understand what science is and how it actually works, then they should necessarily make use of their science process skills as well as scientific content knowledge compulsory to be learned in any science curriculums. As an important schooling item, science curriculums based on scientific literacy have been reoriented at times and aimed at providing students with a deeper understanding of science process skills and make them fully competent to deal with scientific process as far as possible. The present study took its inspiration for examining the role of science curriculum on science process skills from the purpose of investigating learning outcomes in it. The study was conducted in accordance with document analysis of Turkish Secondary School Science Curriculum revised in 2013. The analysis was operated by standards-based assessment of learning outcomes with the help of sentence-based criteria constructed by researchers. The results showed that the representation rate of science process skills for science curriculum varied with grade level and unit. Based on the results, the implications and limitations of the study and the directions for further study were discussed.
Keywords: Science education, science process skills, science curriculum, document analysis
Abd-El-Khalick, F., Bell, R. L., & Lederman, N. G. (1998). The nature of science and instructional practice: Making the unnatural natural. Science Education, 82(4), 417-436.
Ağgül Yalçın, F. (2011). The evaluation of the unit “structure and properties of matter” in primary 8th grade science and technology teacher guidebook with regard to scientific process skills. Elementary Education Online, 10(1), 378-388.
Åkerlind, G. S. (2005). Variation and commonality in phenomenographic research methods. Higher Education Research & Development, 24, 321-334.
Akgün, A., & Duruk, U. (2016). The investigation of preservice science teachers’ critical thinking dispositions in the context of personal and social factors, Science Education International, 27(1), 3-15.
Akgün, A., Tokur, F., & Duruk, U. (2016). Associating conceptions in science teaching with daily life: Water chemistry and water treatment. Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences, 6(1), 161-178.
Aktamış, H., & Ergin, Ö. (2008). The effect of scientific process skills education on students’ scientific creativity, science attitudes and academic achievements. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 9(1), 1-21.
Al-Rabaani, A. (2014). The acquisition of science process skills by Omani’s pre-service social studies’ teachers. European Journal of Educational Studies, 6(1), 13-19.
Ambross, J., Meiring, L., & Blignaut, S. (2014). The implementation and development of science process skills in the natural sciences: A case study of teachers’ perceptions. Africa Education Review, 11(3), 459-474.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (1989). Science for all Americans: Project 2061. Washington, DC.
Anderson, R. D. (2002). Reforming science teaching: What research says about inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 13(1), 1-12.
Arthur, C. (1993). Teaching science through discovery. Toronto: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Aslan, O. (2015). How do Turkish middle school science course books present the science process skills? International Journal of Environmental Science Education, 10(6), 829-843.
Aslan, S., Ertas-Kılıc, H., & Kılıc, D. (2016). Bilimsel Süreç Becerileri [Science Process Skills]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
Aydınlı, E., (2007). İlköğretim 6., 7. ve 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin bilimsel süreç becerilerine ilişkin performanslarının değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of science process skill study on the 6.,7. and 8. grade students] (Unpublished Master Dissertation). Gazi University, Institute of Educational Sciences. Ankara.
Aydogdu, B. (2006). İlköğretim fen ve teknoloji öğretiminde bilimsel süreç becerilerini etkileyen değişkenlerin belirlenmesi [Identification of variables effecting science process skills in primary science and technology course] (Unpublished Master Dissertation). Dokuz Eylül University, Educational Sciences Institute, İzmir.
Aydogdu, B. (2015). The investigation of science process skills of science teachers in terms of some variables. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(5), 582-594.
Aydogdu, B., Erkol, M., & Erten, N. (2014). The investigation of science process skills of elementary school teachers in terms of some variables: Perspectives from Turkey. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 15, 1-8.
Aziz, M. S., & Zain, A. N. Md. (2010). The inclusion of science process skills in Yemeni secondary school physics textbooks. European Journal of Physics Education, 1(1), 44-50.
Bagcı Kılıc, G. (2003). Üçüncü uluslararası matematik ve fen araştırması (TIMSS): Fen öğretimi, bilimsel araştırma ve bilimin doğası [The third international mathematics and science study (TIMSS): Science teaching, scientific research and nature of science]. Elementary Education Online, 2(1), 42-51.
Bagcı Kılıc, Haymana, F., & Bozyılmaz, B. (2008). Analysis of the elementary science and technology curriculum of Turkey with respect to different aspects of scientific literacy and scientific process. Education and Science, 33(150), 52-63.
Beaumont-Walters, Y., & Soyibo, K. (2001). An analysis of high school students’ performance on five integrated science process skills. Research in Science & Technological Education, 19(2), 133-145.
Berman, W. (1996). Science process skill competency and academic achievement in college biology: A correlational study. Ed.D. dissertation, Temple University, United States. ProQuest Digital Dissertations Database.
Böyük, U., Tanık, N., & Saracoğlu, S. (2011). Analysis of the scientific process skill levels of secondary school students based on different variables. TUBAV, 4(1), 20-30.
Celik, P. (2013). Probleme dayalı öğrenmenin öğretmen adaylarının fizik dersi başarısı, öğrenme yaklaşımları ve bilimsel süreç becerileri üzerindeki etkisi [The effect of problem based learning on pre-service teachers' physics course achievement, learning approaches and science process skills] (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir.
Chabalengula, V., Mumba, F., & Mbewe, S. (2012). How pre-service teachers, understand and perform science process skills. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 8(3), 167-176.
Charmaz, C. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Chu, H., Treagust, D. F., Yeo, S., & Zadnik, M. (2012). Evaluation of students’ understanding of thermal concepts in everyday contexts. International Journal of Science Education, 34(10), 1509-1534.
DeBoer, G. (2000). Scientific literacy: Another look at its historical and contemporary meanings and its relationship to science education reform. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(6), 582-601.
Delen, I., & Kesercioglu, T. (2012). How middle school students’ science process skills affected by Turkey’s national curriculum change? Journal of Turkish Science Education, 9(4), 3-9.
Dökme, I. (2005). Evaluation of 6th grade science textbook published by the Turkish ministry of education in terms of science process skills. Elementary Education Online, 4(1), 7-17.
Ewers, T. G. (2001). Teacher-directed versus learning cycles methods: Effects on science process skills mastery and teacher efficacy among elementary education students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Timothy Gorman. University of Idaho, United States. ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing.
Farsakoglu, O. F., Sahin, C., & Karslı, F. (2012). Comparing science process skills of prospective science teachers: A cross-sectional study. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 13(1).
Güden, C., & Timur, B. (2016). Examining secondary school students’ cognitive process skills (Çanakkale sample). Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Education, 16(1), 163-182.
Harlen, W. (1999). Purposes and procedures for assessing science process skills. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 6(1), 129-146.
Hazır, A., & Türkmen, L. (2008). The fifth-grade primary school students’ level of science process skills. Journal of Ahmet Keleşoğlu Education Faculty, 26, 81-96.
Kanlı, U., & Yagbasan, R. (2008). The efficacy of the 7E learning cycle model based on laboratory approach on development of students’ science process skills. Gazi University Journal of Gazi Educational Faculty, 28(1), 91-125.
Karahan, Z. (2006). Fen ve teknoloji dersinde bilimsel süreç becerilerine dayalı öğrenme yaklaşımının öğrenme ürünlerine etkisi [Within the science and technology lesson, the effects of scientific process skills based learning on learning products] (Unpublished Master Dissertation). Zonguldak Karaelmas University.
Karamustafaoglu, S. (2011). Improving the science process skills ability of prospective science teachers using I diagrams. Eurasian Journal of Physics and Chemistry Education, 3(1), 26-38.
Karslı, F., Sahin, C., & Ayas, A. (2009). Determining science teachers’ ideas about the science process skills: A case study. Procedia Social and Behavioral Science, 1, 890-895.
Kılıç, G. B., Haymana, F., Bozyılmaz, B. (2008). Analysis of the elementary science and technology curriculum of Turkey with respect to different aspects of scientific literacy and scientific process. Education and Science. 33(150).
Koray, O., Bahadır, H., & Gecgin, F. (2006). The states of being represented of science process skills in the course books of chemistry and chemistry curriculums at the class 9th, ZKU Journal of Social Sciences, 2(4), 147-156.
Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lacin Simsek, C. (2010). Classroom teacher candidates’ sufficiency of analyzing the experiments in primary school science and technology textbooks’ in terms of scientific process skills. Elementary Education Online, 9(2), 433-445.
Laugksch, R. C. (2000). Scientific literacy: A conceptual overview. Science Education, 84(1), 71-94.
Lederman, J. S., Lederman, N. G., Bartos, S. A., Bartels, S. L., Meyer, A. A., & Schwartz, R. S. (2014). Meaningful assessment of learners’ understandings about scientific inquiry-The views about scientific inquiry (VASI) questionnaire. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(1), 65-83.
Lee, C. K. (2014). A conceptual change model for teaching heat energy, heat transfer and insulation. Science Education International, 25(4), 417-437.
Lumbantobing, R. (2004). Comparative study on process skills in the elementary science curriculum and textbooks between Indonesia and Japan. Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University. Part. II, Arts and Science Education, 53, 31-38.
Martin D., J. (1997). Elementary science methods: A constructivist approach, An International Thomson Publishing Company.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, M. A. (1994). An expanded sourcebook qualitative data analysis. London: Sage.
Ministry of National Education, (MoNE). (2006). İlköğretim fen ve teknoloji dersi (6, 7 ve 8. sınıflar) öğretim programı. Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığı, Ankara.
Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2013). İlköğretim kurumları (İlkokullar ve Ortaokullar) fen bilimleri dersi (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. sınıflar) öğretim programı, Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığı, Ankara.
Molefe, L., & Stears, M. (2014). Rhetoric and reality: Science teachers’ educators’ views and practice regarding science process skills. African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 18(3), 219-230.
Monhardt, L., & Monhardt, R. (2006). Creating a context for the learning of science process skills through picture books. Early Childhood Education Journal. 34(1), 67-71.
National Research Council (NRC). (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Nehring, A., Nowak, K. H., zu Belzen, A. U., & Tiemann, R. (2015). Predicting students’ skills in the context of scientific inquiry with cognitive, motivational, and sociodemographic variables, International Journal of Science Education. 1-21.
Niaz, M. (2000). A framework to understand students’ differentiation between heat energy and temperature and its educational implications. Interchange, 31(1), 1-20.
Osborne, J., & Patterson, A. (2012). Authors’ response to “for whom is argument and explanation a necessary distinction? A response to Osborne and Patterson” by Berland and McNeill. Science Education, 96(5), 814-817.
Ostlund, K. L. (1992). Science process skills: Assessing hands-on student performance. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Ozgelen, S. (2012). Students’ science process skills within a cognitive domain framework. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 8(4), 283-292.
Oztürk, N., Tezel, O., & Acat, M. B. (2010). Science process skills levels of primary school seventh grade students in science and technology lesson. Turkish Science Education (TUSED), 7(3), 15-28.
Padilla, M. J. (1990). The science process skills. Research matters - to the science teacher. National Association for Research in Science Teaching.
Phillips, M. C., Vowell, J. E., Lee, Y. H., & Plankis, B. J. (2015). How do elementary science textbooks present the nature of science? The Educational Forum. 79(2), 148-162.
Rezba, R. J., Sprague, C. R., McDonnough, J. T., & Matkins, J. J. (2007). Learning and assessing science process skills. Iova: Kendall, Hunt Publishing Company.
Rillero, P. (1998). Process skills and content knowledge. Science Activities, 35(3), 3-4.
Saat, R. M. (2004). The acquisition of integrated science process skills in a web-based learning environment. Research in Science & Technological Education, 22(1), 23-40.
Saban, Y., Aydogdu, B., & Elmas, R. (2014). The comparison of 2005 and 2013 science curricula for science process skills in 4th and 5th grades. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education, 1(32), 62-85.
Settlage, J., & Southerland, S. A. (2007). Teaching science to every child: Using culture as a starting point. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Shaw, T. J. (1983). The effect of a process-oriented science curriculum upon problem-solving ability. Science Education, 67(5), 615-623.
Sinan, O., & Usak, M. (2011). Evaluating of prospective biology teachers’ scientific process skills. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 8(15), 333-348.
Sen, A. Z. & Nakiboglu, C. (2012). Analyze of high school chemistry textbooks in terms of science process skills, Journal of Kırşehir Education Faculty (KEFAD), 13(3), 47-65.
Taconis, R., Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M, & Broekkamp, H. (2000). Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 442-468.
Yıldırım, C. (2007). Bilim Felsefesi [Philosophy of Science]. İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.
Yıldırım, A., & Simsek, H. (2013). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri [Qualitative Research Methods in Social Sciences]. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
Yıldız Feyzioglu, E., & Tatar, N. (2012). An analysis of the activities in elementary science and technology textbooks according to science process skills and structural characteristics. Education and Science, 37(164), 108-125.
Yılmaz Senem, B. (2013). Content analysis of 9th grade physics curriculum, textbook, lessons with respect to science process skills (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Wong, C. L., Chu, E., & Yap, K. C. (2014). Are alternative conceptions dependent on researchers’ methodology and definition? A review of empirical studies related to concepts of heat. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 14(3), 499-526.
Zion, M., Michalsky, T., & Mevarech, Z. R. (2005). The effects of metacognitive instruction embedded within an asynchronous learning network on scientific inquiry skills. International Journal of Science Education, 27(8), 957-983.