Special Issue - (2016)
Special Issue - (2015)
Special Issue - (2012)
pp. 695-715 | DOI: 10.12973/ijese.2015.261a | Article Number: ijese.2015.026
Published Online: September 09, 2015
Article Views: 855 | Article Download: 682
In this paper, the effectiveness of environmental education (EE) programs at fostering ecologically responsible behavior is analyzed through the lens of psychology. In section 1, a critique of knowledge and attitude appeals is presented using contemporary psychological understandings of these constructs to show why many EE programs have been met with mixed results. It is argued that knowledge and attitudes are misunderstood in precisely how they are employed in decision-making and that these misunderstandings hamper the impact of EE programming. In section 2, the theoretical foundation for applying identity research is developed further and is shown to engage both the automatic and controlled cognitive processes—the key distinction of the IBEE model. In section 3, this research is applied to develop a novel program for producing ecologically responsible behavior through EE using self-identity as a more sophisticated and effective behavioral mediator, as is how a ‘pro-environmental identity’ could be developed. Self-identity is a durable and robust behavioral mediator that has been shown to be highly predictive of an individual’s behavior and can be shaped to lead one toward ecologically responsible behavior across behavioral domains.
Keywords: environmental education, environmental behavior, environmental psychology, conservation
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980) Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Aronson, E. (1969). The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 4, 1-34.
Aronson, E. (2010). The Social Animal. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
Aronson, E., & O’Leary, M. (1982-1983). The relative effectiveness of models and prompts on energy conservation: A field experiment in a shower room. Journal of Environmental Systems, 12, 219-224.
Asch, S. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity: A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs, 70(9), No. 416. doi: 10.1177/0013916511402673
Bargh, J. A. (1989). Conditional automaticity: Varieties of automatic influence in social perception and cognition. In Bargh, J. A. & J. S. Uleman (Eds.) Unintended thought, Guilford Press, 51-69.
Baumeister, R., Masicampo, E., & Vohs, K. (2011). Do conscious thoughts cause behavior? Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 331-361. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.131126
Blanton, H. & Christie, C. (2003). Deviance Regulation: A theory of action and identity. Review of General Psychology, 7, 115-149. doi: 10.1037/1089-26188.8.131.52
Bohner, G., & Dickel, N. (2011). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 391-417.
Bramston, P., Pretty, G., & Zammit, C. (2011). Assessing environmental stewardship motivation. Environment and Behavior, 43(6), 776-788. doi:10.1177/0013916510382875
Chawla, L. & Cushing, D. F. (2007) Education for strategic environmental behavior. Environmental Education Research, 13(4), 437-452. doi: 10.1080/13504620701581539
Clarke, A., Bell, P. A., & Peterson, G. L. (1999). The influence of attitude priming and social responsibility on the valuation of environmental public goods using paired comparisons. Environment and Behavior, 31(6), 838-857. doi:10.1177/00139169921972371
Cialdini, R., Reno, R., & Kallgren, C. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public spaces. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1015-1026. doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2065
Cialdini, R. & Goldstein, N. (2004). Social influence: compliance and conformity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 591-621. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142015
Connor, M. & Armitage, C. (1998). Extending the theory of planned behavior: A review and avenues for further research.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(15), 1429-1464.
Corraliza, J. A., & Berenguer, J. (2000). Environmental values, beliefs, and actions: A situational approach. Environment and Behavior, 32(6), 832-848. doi:10.1177/00139160021972829
Courtney-Hall, P., & Rogers, L. (2002). Gaps in Mind: Problems in environmental knowledge-behavior modeling research.Environmental Education Research, 8(3), 283-297. doi: 10.1080/1350462022014543 8
Dettmann-Easler, D., & Pease, J. (1999). Evaluating the effectiveness of residential environmental education programs in fostering positive attitudes toward wildlife. Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 33-39. doi: 10.1080/00958969909598630
Dijksterhuis, A., Chartrand, T., & Aarts, H. (2007). Effects of priming and perception on social behavior and goal pursuit. InSocial Psychology and the Unconscious: The Automaticity of Higher Mental Processes, ed. JA Bargh, pp. 51–132. Philadelphia, PA: Psychol. Press
Disinger, J. (1982). Environmental education research news. The Environmentalist, 2, 285-288.
Evans, Jonathan St. B. T. (2008). Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 255-278. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093629
Fazio, R.H. (1989). On the power and functionality of attitudes: the role of attitude accessibility. In A.R. Pratkanis, S.J. Breckler, & A.G. Greenwald (Ed.s), Attitude structure and function (pp. 153-179). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison process. Human Relations, 7, 117-140. doi: 10.1177/001872675400700202
Fischhoff, B. (1975). Hindsight is not equal to foresight: The effect of outcome knowledge on judgment under uncertainty.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1, 288-299. doi: 10.1037/0096-15220.127.116.118
Freedman, J., & Fraser, S. (1966). Compliance without pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4(2), 195-202. doi: 10.1037/h0023552
Gerard, H. & Mathewson, G. (1966). The effects of severity on initiation on liking for a group: A replication. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 278-287. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(66)90084-9
Gilbert, D. (2006). Stumbling on Happiness. New York: Knopf.
Goldstein, N., Cialdini, R., & Griskevicius, V. (2007). A Room with a viewpoint: Using social norms to motivate environmental conservation in hotels. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(3). doi: 10.1086/586910
Goodwin, M. J., Greasley, S., John, P., & Richardson, L. (2010). Can we make environmental citizens? A randomised control trial of the effects of a school-based intervention on the attitudes and knowledge of young people. Environmental Politics,19(3), 392-412. doi:10.1080/09644011003690807
Gregg, G. S. (2006). The raw and the bland: a structural model of narrative identity. In D. P. McAdams, R. Josselson, & A. Lieblich (Eds.), Identity and story: creative self in narrative (pp. 63-88). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Gutierrez, D. (1996). Values and their effect on pro-environmental behavior. Environment and Behavior, 28(1), 111-133. doi: 10.1177/0013916596281006
Harter, S. (1999). The Construction of the Self. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Harter, S. (2012). Emerging self-process during childhood and adolescence. In M. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (2nd ed., pp. 680-715). New York: The Guilford Press.
Heimlich, J., & Ardoin, N. (2008). Understanding behavior to understand behavior change: A literature review.Environmental Education Research, 14(3), 215-237. doi: 10.1080/13504620802148881
Hogg, M. (2012). Social identity and the psychology of groups. In M. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (2nd ed., pp. 502-519). New York: The Guilford Press
Hungerford, H., & Volk, T. (1990) Changing learner behavior through environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 21(3), 8-21. doi: 10.1080/00958964.1990.10753743
Jaynes, J. (1976). The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind. New York, NY: First Mariner Books.
Janhoff-Bulman, R., Timco, C., & Carli, L. L. (1985). Cognitive bias in blaming the victim. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 161-177. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(85)90013-7
Jeannerod, M. (2006). Consciousness of action as an embodied consciousness. 2006, pp. 25–38.
Jost, J. & Hunyady O. (2003). The psychology of system justification and the palliative function of ideology. European Review of Social Psychology, 13(1), 111-153. doi: 10.1080/10463280240000046
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1973). On the psychology of prediction. Psychological Review, 80, 237-251. doi: 10.1037/h0034747
Kaiser, F., Wolfing, S., & Fuhrer, U. (1999). Environmental attitude and ecological behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 1-19.
Kay, A., Jimenez, M., & Jost, J. (2002). Sour grapes, sweet lemons, and the anticipatory rationalization of the status.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1300-1312. doi: 10.1177/01461672022812014
Kellstedt, P., Zahran, S., & Vedlitz, A. (2008). Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes towards global warming and climate change in the United States. Risk Analysis, 28, 113-126. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01010.x
Kleine, R., Kleine, S., & Kernan, J. (1993). Mundane consumption and the self: A social-identity perspective. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2(3), 209-235. doi: 10.1016/S1057-7408(08)80015-0
Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research, 8(3), 239-260. doi: 10.1080/1350462022014540 1
LaPierre, R. (1934). Attitudes vs. actions. Social Forces, 13(2), 230-237. doi: 10.2307/2570339
Leary, M. & Tangney, J. P. (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Lieberman, M. (2007). Social cognitive neuroscience: a review of core processes. Annual Review of Psychology. 58, 259-289. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085654
Likens, G., Driscoll, C., & Buso, D. (1996). Long-term effects of acid rain: Response and recovery of a forest ecosystem.Science, 272(5259), 244-246. doi:10.1126/science.272.5259.244
Markus, H., (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 63-78. doi: 10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168
Morf, C., & Mischel, W. (2012). The self as a psycho-social dynamic processing system. In M. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.),Handbook of Self and Identity (2nd ed., pp. 21-49). New York: The Guilford Press
McMakin, A., Malone, E., & Londgren, R. (2002). Motivating residents to conserve energy without financial incentives.Environment and Behavior, 34, 48-863. doi: 10.1177/001391602237252
Negra, C., & Manning, R. (1997). Incorporating environmental behavior, ethics, and values into nonformal environmental education programs. Journal of Environmental Education, 28, 10-21. doi:10.1080/00958964.1997.9942818
Nigbur, D., Lyons, E., & Uzzell, D. (2010). Attitudes, norms, identity and environmental behaviour: Using an expanded theory of planned behaviour to predict participation in a kerbside recycling programme. British Journal of Social Psychology, 49, 259-284. doi:10.1348/014466609X449395
Nolan, J. M. (2010). "An inconvenient truth" increases knowledge, concern, and willingness to reduce greenhouse gases.Environment and Behavior, 42(5), 643-658. doi:10.1177/0013916509357696
Obermiller, C. (1995). The baby is sick/the baby is well: A test of environmental communication appeals. Journal of Advertising, 24, 55-70. doi: 10.1080/00913367.1995.10673476
Oreg, S., & Katz-Gerro, T. (2006). Predicting proenvironmental behavior cross-nationally: Values, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Environment and Behavior, 38(4), 462-483. doi:10.1177/0013916505286012
Osbaldison, R., & Schott, J.P. (2012). Environmental sustainability and behavioral science: Meta-analysis of proenvironmental behavior experiments. Environment and Behavior, 44(2), 257-299. doi:10.1177/0013916511402673
Oyserman, D. (2009). Identity-based motivation: Implications for action-readiness, procedural-readiness, and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(3), 250-260. doi: 10.1016/j.jcps.2009.06.001
Oyserman, D., Elmore, K., & Smith, G. (2012). Self, self-concept, and identity. In Leary, M. & Tangney, J. P. (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (2nd ed., pp. 69-104). New York: The Guilford Press.
Pomerantz, L. (1990-1991). Evaluation of natural resource education materials: Implications for resource management.Journal of Environmental Education, 22(2), 16-23. doi: 10.1080/00958964.1991.9943050
Pooley, J., & O’Connor, M. (2000). Environmental education and attitudes: Emotions and beliefs are what is needed.Environment and Behavior, 32(5), 711-723. doi: 10.1177/0013916500325007
Redman, E., & Redman, A. (2014). Transforming sustainable food and waste behaviors by realigning domains of knowledge in our education system. Journal of Cleaner Production, 64, 147-157. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.09.016
Reno, R., Cialdini, R., & Kallgren, C. (1993). The transsituational influence of social norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 104-112. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124
Rioux, L. (2011). Promoting pro-environmental behaviour: Collection of used batteries by secondary school pupils.Environmental Education Research, 17(3), 353-373. doi: 10.1080/13504622.2010.543949
Ross, L., Amabile, T., & Steinmetz, J. (1977) Social roles, social control, and biases in social-perception processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(7), 485-494. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1995
Schultz, P. (2002). Knowledge, information, and household recycling: Examining the knowledge-deficit model of behavior change. In T. Dietz & P. C. Stern (Eds.), New tools for environmental protection: Education, information, and voluntarymeasures (pp. 67-82). The National Academic Press.
Siero, F., Bakker, A., Dekker, G., & Van Den Burg, M. (1996). Changing organizational energy consumption behavior through comparative feedback. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 235-246. doi: 10.1006/jevp.1996.0019
Smith, J., Terry, D., Manstead, A., Louis, W., Kotterman, D., & Wolfs. (2007). Interaction effects in the theory of planned behavior: The interplay of self-identity and past behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(11), 2726-2750. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00278.x
Sparks, P. & Guthrie, C. (1998) Self-identity and the theory of planned behavior: A useful addition or an unhelpful artifice?Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(15), 1393-1410. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01683.x
Staats, H., Wit, A., & Midden, C. (1996). Communicating the greenhouse effect to the public: Evolution of a mass media campaign from a social dilemma perspective. Journal of Environmental Management, 45, 189-203. doi: 10.1006/jema.1996.0015
Stern, P. (1999). Information, incentives, and proenvironmental consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Policy, 22, 461-478. doi: 10.1023/A:1006211709570
Stern, P., Dietz, T., & Guagnano, G. (1995). The new ecological paradigm in social psychological context. Environment and Behavior, 27(6), 723-743. doi: 10.1177/0013916595276001
Stryker, S. & Burke, P. (2000). The past, present, and future of an identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(4), 284-297.
Tetlock, P. E. (1985). Accountability: A social check on the fundamental attribution error. Social Psychology Quarterly, 48(3), 227-236.
Thapa, B. (2010). The mediation effect of outdoor recreation participation on environmental attitude-behavior correspondence. Journal of Environmental Education, 41(3), 133-150. doi: 10.1080/00958960903439989
Tol, R. (1996). The damage costs of climate change towards a dynamic representation. Ecological Economics, 19(1), 67-90. doi: 10.1016/0921-8009(96)00041-9
Uleman, J. & Bargh, J. (Ed.s.). (1989). Unintended Thought, New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Valente, T. W., Paredes, P. & Poppe, P. R. (1998). Matching the message to the process: The relative ordering of knowledge, attitudes, and practices in behavior change research. Human Communication Research, 24, 366–385. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1998.tb00421.x
Wynne, B. (1992). Uncertainty and environmental learning: reconceiving science and policy in the preventive paradigm.Global Environmental Change. 2(2), 111-127. doi: 10.1016/0959-3780(92)90017-2
Zelezny, L. (1999). Educational interventions that improve environmental behaviors: A meta-analysis. The Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 5-14. doi: 10.1080/00958969909598627