Special Issue - (2016)
Special Issue - (2015)
Special Issue - (2012)
pp. 69-95 | Article Number: ijese.2018.006
Published Online: January 24, 2018
Article Views: 262 | Article Download: 268
Teaching and learning chemistry involves multiple levels of representation: macroscopic (macro), submicroscopic (submicro), and symbolic. A more recent trend includes the human element, a fourth representation level that contextualizes the chemistry content through real-world applications. This three-year study follows eight beginning chemistry teachers in order to understand how the chemistry content is depicted in the classroom. Teachers need to be engaged in the analysis of key concepts in the content and common representations to recognize instruction should focus on helping students negotiate the representation levels. Support for teachers with examples will help beginning teachers better implement the tetrahedral model and empower beginning teachers to intentionally point out the connections among the different representational levels for students. This may require support to extend beyond the first three years in the classroom.
Keywords: Early Career Science Teacher, Chemistry, Chemistry Tetrahedral Orientation
American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS]. 1993. Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press.
American Chemical Society. 2006. Chemistry in the Community (ChemCom). New York: W.H. Freeman.
American Chemical Society. 2015. "Molecule of the Week (MOTW)." accessed August 14. http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/molecule-of-the-week.html.
Andersson, Bjorn. 1986. "Pupils' explanations of some aspects of chemical reactions." Science Education 70:549-563.
Banks, Frank, Jenny Leach, and Bob Moon. 2005. "Extract from New understandings of teachers' pedagogic knowledge." The Curriculum Journal 16:331-340.
Ben-Zvi, Ruth, Bat-Sheva Eylon, and Judith Silberstein. 1986. "Is an atom of copper malleable?" Journal of Chemical Education 63:64-66.
Bodner, George M. 1992. "Refocusing the general chemistry curriculum." Journal of Chemical Education 68:186-190.
BouJaoude, S.B., and H Barakat. 2000. "Secondary school students’ difficulties with stoichiometry." School Science Review 81:91-98.
Boz, Nihat, and Yezdan Boz. 2008. "A qualitative case study of prospective chemistry teachers' knowledge about instructional strategies: Introducing particulate theory." Journal of Science Teacher Education 19:135-156.
Bucat, Robert, and Mauro Mocerino. 2009. "Learning at the sub-micro level: Structural representations." In Multiple Representations in Chemical Education, edited by J.K. Gilbert and David F. Treagust, 11-29. Springer Science + Business Media B.V.
Chandrasegaran, A.L., and David F. Treagust. 2009. "Emphasizing multiple levels of representation to enhance students' understandings of the changes occuring during chemical reactions." Journal of Chemical Education 86:1433-1436.
Chandrasegaran, A.L., David F. Treagust, and Mauro Mocerino. 2007. "The development of a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument for evaluating secondary school students’ ability to describe and explain chemical reactions using multiple levels of representation." Chemistry Education Research and Practice 8:293-307.
Chittleborough, Gail, and David F. Treagust. 2007. "The modelling ability of non-major chemistry students and their understanding of the sub-microscopic level." Chemistry Education Research and Practice 8:274-292.
Creswell, John W., and Vicki L. Plano Clark. 2007. Designing and conducting mixed methods reasearch. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Davidowitz, Bette, and Gail Chittleborough. 2009. "Linking the macroscopic and sub-microscopic levels: Diagrams." In Multiple Repersentations in Chemical Education, edited by J.K. Gilbert and David F. Treagust. Springer Science + Business Media B.V.
Evans, Karen L., David Yaron, and Gaea Leinhardt. 2008. "Learning stoichiometry: A comparison of text and multimedia formats." Chemical Education Research and Practice 9:208-218.
Feiman-Nemser, S. 2001. "From preparation to practice: Designing a continuum to strengthen and sustain teaching." Teachers College Record 103:1013-1055.
Feiman-Nemser, S. 2010. "Multiple meanings of new teacher induction." In Past, present, and future research on teacher induction: An anthology for researchers, policy makers, and practititioners, edited by Jian Wang, Sandra J. Odell and Renee T. Clift, 15-30. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Friedrichsen, Patricia , S.K. Abell, Enrique M. Pareja, Patrick L. Brown, Deanna M. Lankford, and Mark J. Volkmann. 2009. "Does teaching experience matter? Examining biology teachers' prior knowledge for teaching in an alternative certification program." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 46:357-383.
Gabel, Dorothy L. 1999. "Improving teaching and learning through chemistry education research: A look to the future." Journal of Chemical Education 76:548-554.
Gilbert, J.K., and David F. Treagust. 2009. "Introduction: Macro, submicro, and symbolic representations and the relationship between them: Key models in chemical education." In Mulitple Representations in Chemical Education, edited by J.K. Gilbert and David F. Treagust, 1-8. Springer Science + Business Media B.V.
Groves, F. 1995. "An analysis of science vocabulary load presented in selected secondary textbooks." School Science and Mathematics 95:231-235.
Groves, F.H. 2016. "A longitudinal study of middle and secondary level science textbook vocabulary loads." School Science and Mathematics 116:320 - 325.
Hinton, Michael E., and Mary B. Nakhleh. 1999. "Students' microscopic, macroscopic, and symbolic representations of chemical reactions." Chemical Educator 4:158-167.
Hoffman, Roald, and P. Laszlo. 1991. "Representation in chemistry." Angewandte Chemie-International Edition in English 20:1-16.
Hoffmann, Roald. 2007. "What might philosophy of science look like if chemists built it?" Synthese 155:321-336.
Jensen, William B. 1998. "Does chemistry have a logical structure?" Journal of Chemical Education 75:679-687.
Johnstone, Alex H. 1982. "Macro- and microchemistry." School Science Review 64:377-379.
Johnstone, Alex H. 1991. "Why is science difficult to learn? Things are seldom like they seem." Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 7:75-83.
Johnstone, Alex H. 2000. "Teaching of chemistry - Logical or psychologocial." Chemistry Education: Research and Practice In Europe 1:9-15.
Justi, Rosaria, and J. van Driel. 2005. "A case study of the development of a beginning chemistry teacher's knowledge about models and modelling." Research in Science Education 35:197-219.
Kapteijn, M. 1990. "The functions of organizational levels in biology for describing and planning biology education." In Relating macroscopic phenomena to microscopic particles, edited by P.L. Lijnse, P Licht, Wobbe de Vos and A.J. Vaarlo, 139-150. Utrect, Netherlands: CD-Press.
Kern, Anne L., Nathan B. Wood, Gillian H. Roehrig, and James Nyachwaya. 2010. "A qualitative report of the ways high school chemistry students attempt to represent a chemical reaction at the atomic/molecular level." Chemistry Education Research and Practice 11:165-172.
Ketelhut, Diane Jass, and Brian C. Nelson. 2010. "Designing for real-world scientific inquiry in virtual environments." Educational Research 52:151-167.
Kozma, R., Elaine Chin, Joel Russell, and Nancy Marx. 2000. "The roles of representations and tools in the chemistry laboratry and their implication for chemistry learning." Journal of the Learning Sciences 9:105-143.
Lawrenz, Frances, D. Huffman, Karen Appeldoorn, and T. Sun. 2002. CETP core evaluation, classroom observation handbook. Minneapolis, MN: CAREI.
Lawrenz, Frances, Douglas Hufman, and Karen Appeldoorn. 2002. CETP core evaluation: K-12 surveys handbook. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minneapolis: CAREI.
Laws, P.M. 1996. "Undergraduate science education: A review of research." Studies in Science Education 28:1-85.
Lederman, Norman G. 1999. "Teachers' understanding of the nature of science and classroom practice: factors that facilitate and impeded the relationship." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 36 (8):916-929.
Lee, Eunmi, M. Brown, Julie A. Luft, and Gillian Roehrig. 2007. "Assessing beginning secondary science teachers' PCK: Pilot year results." School Science and Mathematics 107:418-426.
Levy Nahum, Tami, Avi Hofstein, R. Mamlok-Naaman, and Ziva Bar-Dov. 2004. "Can final examinations amplify students misconceptions in chemistry?" Chemistry Education: Research and Practice In Europe 5:301-325.
Lewthwaite, Brian, and Rick Wiebe. 2010. "Fostering teacher development to a tetrahedral orientation in the teaching of chemistry." Research in Science Education Online version:1-23.
Luft, Julie A., Jonah B. Firestone, Sissy Sze-Mun Wong, Irasema Ortega, Krista Lynn Adams, and Eunjin Bang. 2011. "Beginning secondary science teacher induction: A Two-year mixed methods study." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 48:1199-1224.
Luft, Julie A., and Nancy C. Patterson. 2002. "Bridging the gap: Supporting beginning science teachers." Journal of Science Teacher Education 13 (4):267-282.
Magnusson, S., Joseph Krajcik, and H. Borko. 1999. "Nature, sources, and development of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching." In Examining pedagogical content knowledge, edited by J. Gess-Newsome and Norman G. Lederman, 95-132. Dordrecht Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Mahaffy, Peter. 2006. "Moving chemistry education into 3D: A tetrahedral metaphor for understanding chemistry " Journal of Chemical Education 83:49-55.
Manitoba Education Citizenship and Youth. 2006. Grade 11 chemistry: A framework for implementation. Winnipeg: Manitoba Education, Training and Youth.
Manitoba Education Citizenship and Youth. 2007. Grade 12 chemistry: A framework for implementation. Winnipeg: Manitoba Education, Training and Youth.
Mayer, Kristin. 2011. "Addressing students' misconceptions about gases, mass, and composition." Journal of Chemical Education 88:111-115.
Meijer, Marijn R., Astrid M. W. Bulte, and Albert Pilot. 2009. "Structure-property relations betwen macro and micro representations: Relevant meso-levels in authentic tasks." In Multiple Representations in Chemical Education, edited by J.K. Gilbert and David F. Treagust, 195-213. Springer Science + Business Media B.V.
Merriam, Sharan B. 1998. Qualitative research and case study applictions in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mutton, Trevor, Hazel Hagger, and Katharine Burn. 2011. "Learning to plan, planning to learn: The developing expertise of beginning teachers." Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice 18:399-416.
Nakhleh, Mary B. 1992. "Why some students don't learn chemistry." Journal of Chemical Education 69:191-196.
National Research Council. 2011. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
National Research Council [NRC]. 1996. National science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NGSS Lead States. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For states, by states. . Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Patton, M.Q. 1990. Qualitative evaluation methods. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, Inc.
Pozzer, Lilian Leivas, and Wolff-Michael Roth. 2003. "Prevalence, function, and structure of photographs in high school biology textbooks." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 40:1089-1114.
Sande, Mary Elizabeth. 2010. "Pedagogical content knowledge and the gas laws: A multiple case study." Doctor of Philosophy, University of Minnesota.
Shulman, Lee S. 1986. "Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching." Educational Researcher 15:4-14.
Shwartz, Yael, Ruth Ben-Zvi, and Avi Hofstein. 2006. "The use of scientific literacy taxonomy for asssessing the development of chemical literacy among high-school students." Chemical Education Research and Practice 7:203-225.
Taber, Keith S. 2009. "Learning at the symbolic level." In Mulitple Representations in Chemical Education, edited by J.K. Gilbert and David F. Treagust, 75-107. Springer Science + Business Media B.V.
Taber, Keith S. 2013. "Revisiting the chemistry triplet: drawing upon the nature of chemical knowledge and the psychology of learning to inform chemistry education." Chemistry Education Research and Practice 14:156-168.
Talanquer, Vicente. 2011. "Macro, submicro, and symbolic: The many faces of the chemistry triplet." International Journal of Science Education 33:179-195.
Teddlie, C., and A. Tashakkori. 2009. Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Towns, Marcy Hamby, Jeffrey Raker, R., Nicole Becker, Marissa Harle, and Jonathan Sutcliffe. 2012. "The biochemistry tetrahedron and the development of the taxonomy of biochemistry external representations (TOBER)." Chemistry Education Research and Practice.
Treagust, David F., and Gail Chittleborough. 2001. "Chemistry: A matter of understanding representations." In Subject-specific Instructional Methods and Activities, edited by J. Brophy, 239-268. Kidlington, Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.
Treagust, David F., Gail Chittleborough, and Thapelo Mamiala. 2003. "The role of submicroscopic and symbolic representations in chemical explanations." International Journal of Science Education 25:1353-1368.
Van Driel, J.H., Onno de Jong, and Nico Verloop. 2002. "The development of preservice chemistry teachers' pedagogical content knowledge." Science Teacher Education 86:572-590.
Veal, William R. 2004. "Beliefs and knowledge in chemistry teacher development." International Journal of Science Education 26:329-351.
Yager, Robert. 1983. "The importance of terminology in teaching K-12 science." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 20:577-588.
Zoller, U. 1990. "Students' misunderstandings and misconceptions in college freshman chemistry (general and organic)." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27:1053-1065.