Special Issue - (2016)
Special Issue - (2015)
Special Issue - (2012)
pp. 1689-1708 | Article Number: ijese.2017.109
Published Online: September 14, 2017
Article Views: 120 | Article Download: 167
As a developing country, Indonesia is facing problems regarding lecturer performance. This study was intended to provide empirical evidence among variables related lecturer performance and to investigate the effect of reward system, lecturer satisfaction and commitment on lecturer performance in higher education institutions in Indonesia. A closed ended questionnaire was administered to collect data and 750 questionnaires were distributed by using snow ball sampling method to public and private universities in Indonesia. About 347 questionnaires were returned and could be further analyzed. Respondents were required to indicate their level of agreement on various items with a five-point scale. Path analysis was employed to test research hypotheses. Independent t-test and Anova test were also conducted to investigate the differences impact demographic data on the variables being examined. This research found that higher reward system, lecturer commitment and lecturer satisfaction significantly improve lecturer performance in higher education institutions in Indonesia. The findings and limitations are discussed and recommendations for education policy makers and researchers are also provided.
Keywords: Lecturer performance, reward, satisfaction, commitment, higher education
Aiken, L.R. (1999). Personality Assessment, Methods and Practices, (3rd ed.). Seatle Toronto: Hogrefe and Huber Publisher.
Ajila, C. and Abiola, A. (2004). Influence of rewards on workers performance in an organization. Journal of Social Science 8(1): 7-12.
Akinbowale, M.A., Lourens, M.E, Jinabhai, D.C,. 2014. Employee Performance Measurement and Appraisal Policy in an Organisation. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol 5 No 9, May 2014.
Ali, R. and Ahmed, M.S. (2009). The impact of reward and recognition programs on employee’s motivation and satisfaction: An empirical study. International Review of Business Research Papers 5(4): 270-279.
Alzaidi, A.M. (2009). A Qualitative Study of Job Satisfaction among Secondary School Head Teachers in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Retreived 28 August 2009 from http://Research.ncl.ac.uk/ARECLS/ vol4_documents/ALZAIDI.pdf.
Azeem, S.M. (2010). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees in the Sultanate of Oman. Psychology 1(4): 295-299.
Azura, R.Z. and Normah, C.D. (2008). Teacher stress: An examination of factors influencing teaching performance in the rural elementary schools. Simposium Sains Kesihatan Kebangsaan ke 7 (224 – 225). Hotel Legend, Kuala Lumpur.
Bhattacharya, S. and Mukherjee, P. (2009). Rewards as a key to employee engagement : A comparative study on I.T. professionals. ASBM Journal of Management 2(1): 160-175.
Breaux, K.T. (2004). The effect of program commitment on the degree of participative congruence and managerial performance in a budgeting setting. Dissertation Louisiana State University.
Brochard, L. (2006). Research, a never-ending jigsaw puzzle. Two new series in Intensive Care Medicine. Intensive Care Medicine 32(12): 1923-1924.
Brodjonegoro, S. (1997). Some thoughts on quality improvement and competitiveness of Higher Education Institutions in Indonesia, Working Paper of the Academic Leaders of the State and Private Higher Education Institutions Conference, Jakarta.
Bull, I.H.F. (2005). The relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment amongst hing school teachers n disadvantaged areas in the Wetern Cape. Thesis University of the Western Cape.
Chamundeswari, S. 2013. Job Satisfaction and Performance of School Teachers. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences May 2013, Vol. 3, No. 5
Chughtai, A.A. (2008). Impact of job involvement on in-role job performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Ireland: Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management.
Clinton, B.D. and Hunton, J.E. (2001). Linking participative budgeting congruence to organization performance. Behavioral Research In Accounting 13: 127–141.
Cook, A.L. (2008). Job satisfaction and job performance: is the relationship spurious? Thesis Texas A & M University.
Coughlan, A. (2006). A guide to managing reward. Dublin: The Irish Business and Employers Confederation.
Curivan, D.B. (1999). The causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in models of employee turnover. Human Resource Management Review 9(4): 495–524.
DeVahl, J., King, R., and Williamson, J.W. (2005). Academic incentives for students can increase particiaption in and effectiveness a physical activity program. Journal of American College Health 53(6): 295-298.
Efanga, Sunday I. Aniedi, Mfon O. Idente, Gomiluk, O. 2015. Organizational Justice and Job Performance of Lecturers in Federal Universities in South-South Zone of Nigeria. American International Journal of Social Science, Vol. 4, No. 1; February 2015
Fisher, C.D., Schoenfeldt, L.F., and Shaw, J.B. (1993). Human resource management, (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
George, J.M. and Jones, G.R. (2002). Understanding and managing organizational behavior, (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Incorporation.
Hair, J.F., William, C.B., Barry, J.B., Rolph, E.A., and Ronald, L.T. (2006). Multivariate data analysis. Singapore: Pearson Prentice Hall Incorporation.
Hakim, Adnan. 2015. Contribution of Competence Teacher (Pedagogical, Personality, Professional Competence and Social) On the Performance of Learning. The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES) Volume 4 Issue 2 PP.01-12, 2015.
Handoko, Yunus. Setiawan, Margono. Surachman, and Djumahir. 2013. Organizational Culture, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, the Effect on Lecturer Performance. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, Volume 2 Issue 12, December, 2013 PP.21-30.
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., and Mullen, M.R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods 6(1): 53–60.
Idowu, A.D. (2007). Impact of monetization of reward system on job performance effectiveness of workers in work organizations In South-Western Nigeria. The African Symposium 7(2): 104-112.
Ikhsan, J. and Asih, A.A. (2008). Exploring the ideas of Creating Higher Education Common Space in Indonesia, Paper presented in
The International Conference Series on Raising Awareness: Exploring the Ideas of Creating Higher Education Common Space in Southeast Asia. Bangkok. Retreived 12 August 2010 from http://www.rihed.seameo.org/ harmonise2008/har_indo.pdf.
Jones, M.D. (2006). Which is a better predictor of job performance: Job satisfaction or life satisfaction? Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management 8(1): 20-43.
Khan, Anwar. Shah, Ishak Mad. Khan, Sadaf. Gul, Shafiq. 2012. Teachers’ Stress, Performance & Resources The Moderating Effects of Resources on Stress & Performance. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 2, No. 2 (2012), pp. 21-29
Krasner, S.D. (1982). Structural causes and regime consequences: regimes as intervening variables. International Organization 36(2): 185–206.
Lahai, M.R., Sail, R.M.D., Muhamad, M., and Suandi, T. (2004). Relationship between the individual facets of job, job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities 12(1): 11-20.
Lazear, E.P. (2001). Educational production. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 116(3): 777–803.
Lin, C.J. (2008). Comparisons between classical test theory and item response theory in automated assembly of parallel test forms. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6(8), 1-41.
Lind, D.A., Marchal, W.G., and Wathen, S.A. (2005). Statistical techniques in business and economics, (12th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies Incorporation.
Long, J.L. and Swortzel, K.A. (2007). Factors influencing job satisfaction of extension agents in the Mississippi State University Extension Service. Proceedings of the 2007 AAAE Research Conference ( 41-53). Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Luthans, F. (1998). Organizational behavior, (8th ed.). Boston: The McGraw-Hill Companies Incorporation.
Marks, H.M. and Louis, K.S. (1997). Does empowerment affect the classroom? The implication of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 19(3): 245-275.
Mathieu, J.E. (1991). A cross-level nonrecursive model of the antecedents of organizational commitment and satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology 76(5): 607-618.
Mathis, R.L. and Jackson, J.H. (2005). Human resource management essential perspectives, (3rd ed.). Canada: Thomson South-Western.
McGuinness, B.M. (1998). The change in employee loyalty. Nursing Management 29(2): 45-46.
Michael, O., Court, D., and Petal, P. (2009). Job stress and organizational commitment among mentoring coordinators. International Journal of Educational Management 23(3): 266-288.
Morris, D. and Maloney, M. (2005). Strategic reward systems: Understanding the difference between ‘Best Fit’ and ‘Best Practice’. Paper at 3rd Performance and Reward Conference (PARC Conference), Manchester Metropolitan University Business School.
Mowday, R.T. (1998). Reflections on the study and relevance of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review 8(4): 387- 401.
Njanja, W. L., Maina, R. N., Kibe, L. K.T., and Njagi, Kageni. 2013. Effect of Reward on Employee Pe rformance: A Case of Kenya Power and Lighting Company Ltd., Nakuru, Kenya. International Journal of Business a nd Management; Vol. 8, No. 21/2013.
Omolayo, B. and Owolabi, A.B. (2007). Monetary reward: A predictor of employees’s commitment to medium scale organization in Nigeria. Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology 4(1): 42-48.
Ostroff, C. (1992). The relationship between satisfaction, attitudes, and performance: Organizational level analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology 77(6): 963-974.
Park, S., Henkin, A.B., and Egley, R. (2005). Teacher team commitment, teamwork and trust: exploring associations. Journal of Educational Administration 43(5): 462-479.
Pattern, T.H. (1977). Pay: Employee compensation and incentife plans. London: Collier Macmillan Publisher.
Pettijohn, C., Linda, P., and Taylor, A.J. (2007). Salesperson perceptions of ethical behaviors: Their influence on job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Journal of Business Ethics 78(4): 547-557.
Randall, D.M. (1987). Commitment and the organization: The organization man revisited. The Academy of Management Review 12(3): 460-471.
Rasian, Z. (2009). Higher education governance in developing countries, Challenges and cecommendations: Iran as a case study. Nonpartisan Education Review 5(3): 1-18.
Rice, E.M., and Schneider, G.T. (1994). A decade of teacher empowerment: An empirical analysis of teacher involvement in decision making. Journal of Educational Administration 32(1): 43-59.
Rice, J.K. (2003). Teacher quality: Understanding the effectiveness of teacher attributes. Woshington: Economic Policy Institute.
Ristekdikti. 2016. Peringkat Universitas di Indonesia. Diunduh tanggal 7 Juni 2017 dari http://ristekdikti.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/klasifikasi20151.pdf)
Robinett, T.L. (2008). A comparison of moral reasoning stages using a model of hierarchical complexity. World Futures 64(5): 468–479.
Romzek, B.S. (1989). Personal consequences of employee commitment. Academy of Management Journal 32(3): 649-661.
Shinew, K.J. and Weston, R. (1992). A conceptual framework of organizational reward systems: implications for leisure service managers. Journal of Park and Recreational Administration 10(4): 1-14.
Skibba, J.S. (2002). Personality and job satisfaction: An investigation of Central Wisconsin Firefighters. Interaction between personality and various factors at a local fire department. Thesis College University of Wisconsin-Stout.
Smeenk, S., Teelken, C., Eisinga, R., and Doorewaard, H. (2008). An international comparison of the effects of HRM practices and organizational commitment on quality of job performances among European university employees. Higher Education Policy 21(3): 323–344.
Starnes, B.J. (2007). Trust, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and the volunteer’s psychological contract, The International Journal of Volunteer Administration 24 (5): 26-30.
Stone, R.J. (2002). Human resource management, (4th ed.). Milton: John Wiley and Sons Australia Ltd.
Sukirno & Siengthai, S. (2010). The Comparison of Graded Response Model and Classical Test Theory in Human Resource Research: A Model Fitness Test, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 18(2), 77 - 90.
Sulistiyono, S.T. (2007). Higher education reform in Indonesia at crossroad. Paper presented at the Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University, Japan. Retreived 12 August 2010 from available at http://www.luk.staff.ugm.ac.id/atur/bhp /HEReform-Singgih.doc.
Sumrall, W.H., Cox, D.W., Doss, D.A., and Jones, D.W. (2008). Participative decisions and organizational commitment: A quantitative analysis. Southern Business Review 33(1): 39-52.
Taufiq, Rohmat. 2012. Penilaian Kinerja Dosen Dalam Bidang Belajar Mengajar Di Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Tangerang. Faktor Exacta Vol. 5 No. 1 / 2012 : 77 – 85.
Tella, A., Ayeni, C.O., and Popoola, S.O. (2007). Work motivation, job satisfaction, and organisational commitment of library personnel in academic and research libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice 4: 1-17.
Tsai, C.J. (2005). Reward and incentive compensation and organizational performance: evidence from the semiconductor industry. Paper at 3rd Performance and Reward Conference (PARC Conference), Manchester Metropolitan University Business School. Retreived 5 December 2009 from http://www.business.mmu.ac.uk/parc/2005 /tsai.pdf.
Voorde, K.V.D., Paauwe, J., and Veldhoven, M.V. (2010). Predicting business unit performance using employee surveys: Monitoring HRM related changes. Human Resource Management Journal 20(1): 44-63.
Warsi, S., Fatima, N., and Sahibzada, S.A. (2009). Study on relationship between organizational commitment and its determinants among private sector employees of Pakistan. International Review of Business Research Papers 5(3): 399–410.
Webometric. (2010). Ranking web of world universities in Asia. Retrieved 5 January 2010 from http://www.webometrics.info/top100_continent.asp?cont=asia.
Wicaksono, T.Y. and Friawan, D. (2008). Recent development of higher education in Indonesia: Issues and challenges. Paper prepared for Discussion at the DPU East Asean Bureau of Economic Research EABER Conference on Financing Higher Education and Economic Development in East Asia, Bangkok. Retreived 7 January 2010 from http://www.eaber.org /intranet/documents/80/.../WPS_DPU_2008 _45.pdf.
Williams, H.A. and Preziosi, R.C. (2004). An analysis of the proposed performance based pay system for academic staff at the university of technology, Jamaica. Journal of College Teaching and Learning 1(8): 27-36.
Wise, P.G. (1998). Rating differences in multi-rater feedback: A new look at an old issue. International Personnel Management Association Assessment Council’s (IPMAAC) Conference on Professional Personnel Assessment, Chicago, Illinois. Retreived 8 October 2009 from http://www.ipacweb.org/conf/98/wise.pdf.
World Bank. (2000). Higher education in developing countries peril and promise. The international bank for reconstruction and development. Washington: The World Bank.
Yousef, D.A. (2000). Organizational commitment: a mediator of the relationship leadership behavior with job satisfaction and performance in a non-western country. Journal of Managerial Psychology 15(1): 6-24.
Zembylas, M. and Papanastasiou, E. (2004). Job satisfaction among school teachers in Cyprus. Journal of Educational Administration 42(3): 357–374.
Zhang, A. and Fang, Y. (2009). Teachers’ performance and its attitudinal antecedents. Retreived 29 August 2009 from http://www.aare.edu.au/04pap/fan04091.pdf.