Special Issue - (2016)
Special Issue - (2015)
Special Issue - (2012)
pp. 143-175 | Article Number: ijese.2017.006
Published Online: February 01, 2017
Article Views: 438 | Article Download: 384
The present study is a descriptive research in the scanning model. In the present study is research conducted to determine five to six-year-old children’s knowledge of science content, study group constitutes of 360 children attending preschool educational institutions in Burdur city center and their parents and teachers. In the study, Science Content Standards Scale (SCSS) Trial Form developed by Taştepe (2012) was used. SCSS consists of a total 31 items and three subscales including Life Science, Physical Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences processing areas. SCSS-Trial Form was filled at the end of May 2015 by group teachers giving children training throughout the whole academic year. Group score differences were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Difference among groups is tested using Scheffe and Tamhane techniques. While statistically significant differences are observed among children’s scores obtained from SCSS total and sub-dimensions according to age and duration of preschool education, and all sub-dimensions as per number of siblings, there are not any statistically significant differences among children’s scores total and sub-dimension according to gender and mothers and fathers’ age. While difference among children’s scores obtained from physical sciences, earth and space sciences is observed in favor of firstborn, no differences in life sciences and total score are not determined. There is a statistically significant difference between children’s scores in physical and life sciences sub-dimensions as per mothers and father’ status of education, and physical sciences sub-dimensions as per mothers’ occupational group but there are not any significant differences determined in as per father’ occupational group.
Keywords: Preschool, kindergarten, science content knowledge, teacher and parents
Ahtee, M., & Johnston, J. (2006). Primary student teacher’ ideas about teaching a physics topic. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 50(2), 207-219. Retrieved December 18, 2015 from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.10%2080/%200%200313830600576021?%20
Akkaya, M. (2007). Öğretmenlerin ve velilerin okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarında uygulananaile katılımı çalışmalarına ilişkin görüşleri. Unpublished Master ‘Thesis. Eskişehir Anadolu University Institute of Education Sciences, Eskişehir. Retrieved July 15, 2015 from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Aksu, F.F.&Karaçöp, A. (2015). Ev temelli fen öğrenme etkinliklerine aile katılımının bazı değişkenler açısında incelenmesi. Bayburt Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 10(1) Retrieved July 13, 2016 from http://edergi.bayburt.edu.%20tr/% 20index.% 20php/befd/ article/view/95/83 Alignment of Kentucky’s Early Childhood Standards with High Scope’s Preschool Child Observation Record (2002). 2nd edition. Retrieved Jun 15, 2016 from http://www.highscope.org/file/Assessment/StateAlignments/Kentucky%20to%20COR%20 Alignment_Nov09.pdf
Andersson, K. & Gullberg, A. (2014). What is science in preschool and what do teachers have to know to empower children? Cultural Studies of Science Education, 9(2), pp. 275-296. DOI: 10.1007/s11422-012-9439-6 Retrieved October 30, 2015 from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=03b7a31e-9bab-4129 a1601d486fb300f9% 40sess ionmgr115&hid=127
Appleton, K. (1992). Discipline knowledge and confidence to teach science: Self-perceptions of primary teacher education students. Research in Science Education, (22), 11–19. Retrieved October 30, 2015 from http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/643/art%253 A10.1007%252FBF02356874.pdf DOI:10.1007/BF02356874.
Aydınlı, E. (2007). İlköğretim 6, 7 ve 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin bilimsel süreç becerilerineilişkin performanslarının değerlendirilmesi. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Gazi University Institute of Education Sciences, Ankara. Retrieved July 15, 2016 from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Aykut, Ö. (2006). Bazı değişkenlerin okul öncesi eğitimi öğretmenlerinin fen ve doğa çalışmalarına ilişkin görüşlerine etkisi. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Gazi University Institute of Education Sciences, Ankara. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTez Merkezi/ Baz, M. 2003, İlkoğretim 7. ve 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin bilimsel okuryazarlık seviyelerinin tespiti. Unpublished Master’s Thesis Marmara University Institute of Education Sciences, İstanbul. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Bilgin Aydın, N.H. (2003). Çocuk Ruh Sağlığı. Morpa Kültür Yayınları, İstanbul.
Bosse, S., Jacobs, G., Anderson, T.L. (2009). Science in the early years: Science in the air. Young Children, 64(6), 10-14. Retrieved February 15, 2015 from http://www.naeyc. org/files/yc/file/200911/BosseWeb1109.pdf
Bowman, B. T. (2006). Standards at the heart of educational equity. Young Children.
Retrieved April 20, 2015 from https://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/200609/Bowman,BTJ.pdf
Bozkurt, O. & Olgun, Ö.S. (2005). Fen ve teknoloji eğitiminde bilimsel süreç becerileri. In M. Aydoğdu ve T. Kesercioğlu (Eds.), İlköğretimde fen ve teknoloji öğretimi (pp. 55-71). Ankara, Anı.
Brewer, J. A. (2001). Introduction to early childhood education: Preschool through primary grades. USA: By Allyn and Bacon.
Brigido, M., Bermejo, M. L. & Mellado, V. (2012). Self-efficacy and emotions in prospective primary education science teachers. In Bruguière, C., Tiberghien, A. & Clément, P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the ESERA 2011 Conference: Science learning and Citizenship Part 12, 19-24. Lyon, France: European Science Education Research Association. Retrieved May 11, 2015 from http://www.esera.org/media/ebook/strand12 /ebook -esera2011_brigido-12.pdf
Brown, T. Brown, K., Barnot, V., & Dean Nelson (2014). Pre-service elementary teachers ’attitudes towards components of physical science: Do they differ from other post-secondary students? Electronic Journal of Science Education, 18(4), 1-20. Retrieved January 18, 2016 from http://ejse.southwestern.edu
Buldu, N., Buldu, M. & Buldu, M. (2014). Türkiye’de anasınıflarında ve ilkokul 1, 2 ve 3. sınıflarda fen öğretimi üzerine bir kalite değerlendirmesi. Eğitim ve Bilim. 39(174), 214-232. DOI:10.15390/EB.2014.2974
Butzow, C.M. & Butzow, J. W. (2000). Science through children’s literature: An integrated approach. USA: A Division of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2010). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara: PegemA.
Büyüktaşkapu, S. (2010). 6 yaş çocuklarının bilimsel süreç becerilerini geliştirmeye yönelikyapılandırmacı yaklaşıma dayalı bir bilim öğretim programı önerisi. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Selçuk University Institute of Social Sciences, Konya. Retrieved January 29, 2013 from https://tez.yok.gov.tr
Cesarone, B. (2007). ECAP Report: Early Childhood Learning Standards: Effects on Teaching Practices, Childhood Education, 84(1), 60-61.DOI:10.1080/00094056.2007.10522974
Charlesworth, R., Lind, K.K., & Fleege, P. (2003). Math and science for young children. New York: Thomson.
Cheadle, J. E. (2009). Parent educational investment and children’s general knowledge development. Social Science Research, 38, 477-491. Retrieved April 07, 2015 from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0049089X08001282/1-s2.0-S0049089X08001282main.pdf?_tid=7189e104-6dc9-11e6-abec00000aab0f6b&acdnat=1472462444_645d97ae5e68cbf8349dac5dbd05a2f0
Çınar, S. (2013). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerin fen ve doğa konularının öğretimindekullandıkları etkinliklerin belirlenmesi. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(1). Retrieved March 05, 2015 from http://www.jret.org/FileUpload/ks281142/File/38c.sinan_cinar.pdf
Davies, D., & Howe, A. (2003). Teaching science, design and technology in the early years. London: David Fulton.
DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development theory and application (2nd ed.). USA: Sage.
Dirim, A. (2003). Çocuk Ruh Sağlığı. Esin Yayınevi, İstanbul.Downing, J. E., & Filer, J. D.(1999). Science process skills and attitudes of preservice elementary teachers. Journal of Elementary Education, 11(2), pp. 57-64. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03173838#page-2
Dubosarsky, M.D. (2011). Science in the eyes of preschool children: Findings from an innovative research tool. Doctoral Dissertation, A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the graduate school of the university of Minnesota. ProQuest Education Journals Retrieved Jun 08, 2012 from http://kutuphane.mehmetakif.edu.tr/? page=veritabanlari &veritabaniTurID=3
Eliason, C. F., & Jenkins, L.T. (2011). A practical guide to early childhood curriculum’s: Pearson.
Englund, M. M., Luckner, A. E., Whaley, G. J. L., & Egeland, B. (2004). Children’s achievement in early elementary school: Longitudinal effects of parental involvement, expectations, and quality of assistance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 723-730. Retrieved February 21, 2015 from http://reseauconceptuel.umontreal.ca/rid=1NHF.QDYY3-8MQ2PQ14G1/KHATON_Asia_vignette5_article.pdf
Essa, E.L. (2011). Early childhood education: Annotated student’s edition. (6th ed.). USA:Wadsworth.
Ferreira, F.H. G., Gignoux, J. (2010). Eğitimde Fırsat Eşitsizliği: Türkiye Örneği. DünyaBankası Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı ve Dünya Bankası Refah veSosyal Politika Analitik Çalışma Programı Çalışma Raporu, (4). Retrieved Jly 13, 2016from http://abdigm.meb.gov.tr/projeler/ois/egitim/006.pdf
Franklin, S. P., Lamana, A. & Van Thiel, L. (2003). Early childhood program standards: For three and four years, old. Early Childhood Advisory Council to the Massachusetts Board of Education. Retrieved August 30, 2015 from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481493.pdf
Greenfield, D.B., J. Jirout, X. Dominguez, A. Greenberg, M. Maier, & J. Fuccilo (2009). Science in the preschool classroom: A programmatic research agenda to improve science readiness. Early Education and Development, 20(2), 238–264. Retrieved Jun11, 2015 from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10409280802595441?need. Access=true
Guo, Y., Piasta, S.B., & Bowles, R.P.(2015).Exploring Preschool Children's Science Content . Knowledge. Early Education and Development, 26(1) pp.125-146. Retrieved October30, 2015 from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1040 9289.2015.968240
Harlen, W. & Jelly, S. (1997). Developing science in the primary classroom. Harlow: Longman.
Hope K. G., Schachter, R. E., & Wasik, B.A. (2013). Using the scientific method to guide learning: An integrated approach to early childhood curriculum. Early Childhood Education Journal, 41(5), 315-323. Redrieved July 12, 2014 from http://eds. b.Ebscohost. com/eds/pdfviewer/ pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=9c039f9c-f2ac-10d-94ab-31ba94472c8d%40sessionmgr 110&hid=103Illinois State Board of Education. (2002). Illinois early learning standards. Retrieved October 30, 2015 from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481222.pdf
Jackman, H. L. (2011). Early education curriculum: A child’ s connection to the world (5th ed.). Wadsworth.
Johnson, J. (1999). The forum on early childhood science, mathematics, and technology education. In Dialogue on early childhood: Science, mathematics and technology education (pp.14-26). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Johnston, J. & Ahtee, M. (2006). Comparing primary student teachers’ attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge needs in a physics activity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(4), 503-512. Retrieved August 09, 2015 from http://ac.els-.cdn.Com/S0742051X0500154X/1-s2.0-S0742051X0500154X-main.pdf?_tid=32636298-.6d6a-11e6-aa7f-00000aab0f01&acdnat=
Kallery, M., & Psillos, D. (2001). Pre-school teachers’ content knowledge in science: Theirunderstanding of elementary science concepts and of issues raised by children’s questions. International Journal of Early Years Education, (9), 165–179. Retrieved April 05, 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09669760120086929
Karaer, H. ve Kösterelioğlu, M. (2005). Amasya ve Sinop illerinde çalışan okul öncesiöğretmenlerinin fen kavramlarının öğretilmesinde kullandıkları yöntemlerinbelirlenmesi. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi. 13(2), 447-454. Retrieved March 03, 2015from http://www.Kefdergi.com/pdf/13_2/13_2_14.pdf
Karamustafaoğlu, S., & Kandaz, U. (2006). Okul öncesi eğitimde fen etkinliklerinde kullanılan öğretim yöntemleri ve karşılaşılan güçlükler. Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,26(1), 65-81. Retrieved April 07, 2015 from http://egitimarastirmasi.ueuo. com/ogretim/makale1/20061.pdf
Kefi, S., Çeliköz, N., & Erişen, Y. (2013). Okulöncesi eğitim öğretmenlerinin temel bilimselsüreç becerilerini kullanım düzeyleri. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(2). Retrieved April 14, 2014 from http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/tubav/article/download/1013000108/1013000161
Kesicioğlu, O.S. (2008). Ebeveynlerin okul öncesi dönemdeki çocuklarına (60-72 ay) yaşattıkları doğal çevre deneyimleri ve çocukların çevreye karşı tutumları. UnpublishedPostgraduate Thesis. Gazi University Institute of Education Sciences, Ankara. Retrieved January 31, 2015 from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Kesik, C. (2016). İlkokul üçüncü sınıf öğrencilerinin fen okuryazarlığını belirlemeye yönelikenvanter geliştirme ve uygulama (Şanlıurfa ili örneği). Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Niğde University Institute of Education Sciences, Niğde. Retrieved July 14, 2016 fromhttps://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Kloos, H., Baker, H., Luken, E., Brown, R., D., Pfeiffer, D. and Carr, V. (2012). Preschoolers learning science: Myth or reality? In H. Kloos, B. J. Morris and J. L.Amaral (Eds.), Current topics in children's learning and cognition (pp.45-60). Rijeka,Croatia:Tech-Open Access Publisher. Redrieved February 07, 2015 from http://cdn.Intechopen.com/pdfs/40973/InTechPreschoolers_learning_science_myth_or_reality_.pdf
Koçak, N.B. (2009). Farklı sosyo-ekonomik düzeydeki ailelerin anasınıfına giden beş-altıyaş çocuklarının erken öğrenme becerilerinin incelenmesi. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Gazi University Institute of Education Sciences, Ankara.https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Kuhn, D., & S. Pearsall. 2000. Developmental origins of scientific thinking. Journal of Cognition and Development, (1), 113–129. Retrieved May 12, 2016 from http://eds.b. ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=a09736b8-2241-4abf-b708-9b4e7de 29 777%40sessionmgr105&hid=119
Leibham, M.B.; Alexander, J. M.; Johnson, K. E. (2013). Science interests in preschool boys and girls: Relations to later self-concept and science achievement. Science Education,97(4), 574-593. DOI: 10.1002/sce.21066
Lind, K.K. (2005). Exploring science in early childhood education. New York, USA:Thomson Delmar Learning.
Martin, R., Sexton, C., Franklin, T., Gerlovich, J.& McElroy, D. (2014). Teaching science for all children: An inquiry approach (5th ed.). USA: Pearson Education.
Martin, D. J. (2001). Constructing early childhood science. USA:Delmar Thomson Learning. Massachusetts Department of Education. (2003). Guidelines for preschool learning experiences. Early childhood advisory council to the Massachusetts board of education. Retrieved August 30, 2015 from http://www.eec.state.ma.us/docs1/ research_ planning/guidelines4preschool.pdf
McNeal Jr., R. B. (2001). Differential effects of parental involvement on cognitive and behavioral outcomes by socioeconomic status. Journal of Socio-Economics, 30, 171-179. Retrieved September 12, 2015 from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1053535700001001/1- s2.0-S1053535700001001-main.pdf? _tid=f917d104-6d28-11e6a19600000aab0f27 &acdnat= 1472393522_43a472a47f8f07735 d548cefa5ce1ccf
Metz, K.E. (1997). On the complex relation between cognitive developmental research and children’s science curricula. Review of Educational Research 67(1), 151–163.Retrieved August 10,2016 from http://about.jstor.org/terms
Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. (1994). Okul öncesi eğitim programı. Milli Eğitim Basımevi,İstanbul.Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. (2002). 36-72 aylık çocuklar için okul öncesi eğitim programı. MilliEğitim Basımevi, Ankara.Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. (2006). 36-72 aylık çocuklar için okul öncesi eğitim programı. MilliEğitim Basımevi, Ankara.Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Temel Eğitim Genel Müdürlüğü (2013). Okul öncesi eğitim programı. Milli Eğitim Basımevi, Ankara.
Morrison, G.S. (2009). Early childhood education today (11th ed.). US: Pearson.
Murphy, C., Neil, P., & Beggs, J. (2007). Primary science teacher confidence revisited: Ten years on. Educational Research, 49(4), 415-430. Retrieved April 04, 2015 from http: //eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/command/detail? sid=e8166b16-4c10-4937-9ae7c88a 06e9e60a% 40sessionmgr4008&vid=1&hid=4205NAEYC & NAECS/SDE (The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC and The National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education) (2002). Early learning standards: Creating the conditions for success. Joint position statement. Retrieved September 15, 2015 from www.naeyc.org/about/positions/early_learning_standards.asp.
National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. Chapter 2, p.2-10. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Retrieved July 30, 2015 from http://www.nap.edu/catalog/4962/national-science-education-standards
National Research Council (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. Chapter 3, p.13-36. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Retrieved July 30, 2015 from http://www.nap.edu/read/9596/chapter/3
OECD (2013), PISA 2012 Results: Excellence Through Equity Giving Every Student the Chance to Succeed (Volume II), PISA, OECD Publishing. Retrieved July 12, 2016 from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results-volume-II.pdfOhio Department of Education. (2004,2007, revised 2012). Early learning content standards. Retrieved July 29, 2015 from http://www.bbhcsd.org/downloads/Preschool.pdf
Opfer, J.E., & R.S. Siegler (2004). Revisiting preschoolers’ living things concept: A microgenetic analysis of conceptual change in basic biology. Cognitive Psychology, 49, 301–332. Retrieved May 15, 2015 from http://www.developmentalcognitivescience.org/lab/publications_files/OS%202004.pdf
Oral, I. & Mcgivney, E.J. (2014). Türkiye eğitim sisteminde eşitlik ve akademik başarı araştırma raporu ve analiz. ERG Eğitim Reformu Girişimi. Sabancı Üniversitesi Yayınları, İstanbul. Retrieved July 11, 2016 from http://kasaum.ankara. edu.tr/files/2013 /02/ ERGe%C5%9FitlikWEB.22.05.14.pdf
Osborne, J., Simon, S., & Collins, S. (2003). Attitudes towards science, a review of the literature and its implications. International Journal of Science Education, 25(9), pp.1049-1079. Retrieved July 11, 2016 from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/0950069032000032199
Özbey, S. (2006). Okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin fen etkinliklerine ilişkin yeterliliklerinin belirlenmesi. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Gazi University Institute of Education Sciences, Ankara. Retrieved July 11, 2014 from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Pepele Ünal, M. (2006). Okulöncesi öğretmenlerinin fen eğitimine karşı tutumlarının çocukların fen süreçlerini kullanmalarına etkisinin incelenmesi (Ankara-Malatya illeri örnekleri). Unpublished Postgraduate Thesis, İnönü University Institute of Social Sciences, Malatya. Retrieved May 13, 2014 from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTez Merkezi/Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2009). Pennsylvania learning standards for early childhood. Retrieved July 29, 2015 from https://www.pakeys.org/uploadedcontent/ docs/pd/Standards/Pre-Kindergarten%202010.pdf
Piasta, S.B.; Pelatti, C.Y., & Miller, H.L. (2014). Mathematics and science learning opportunities in preschool classrooms. Early Education & Development, 25(4), 445-468. Retrieved Jun 15, 2015 from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=03b7a31e-9bab-4129-a160-1d486fb300f9%40sessionmgr115&hid=127
Rakow, S. J., & Bell, M. J. (1998). Science and young children: The message from the
national science education standards. Retrieved Jun 15, 2015 from
Rice, D.C., & Roychoudhury, A. (1994). An exploratory study of how one science education contributes to preservice elementary teachers' confidence in their science teaching abilities. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Anaheim, CA.
Saçkes, M. (2014). How often do early childhood teachers teach science concepts? Determinants of the frequency of science teaching in kindergarten. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 22(2), pp.169-184, Retrieved February 22, 2015 from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1350293X.2012.704305
Saçkes, M., Trundle, K.C., & Bell, R.L. (2013). Science Learning Experiences in Kindergarten and Children’s Growth in Science Performance in Elementary Grades. Education and Science, 38(167), pp.114-127. Retrieved Jun 21, 2015 from https://ir.library.oregonstate. edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/38024/BellRandyLEducationScienceLearningExperiences.pdf?sequence=1
Salıcı-Ahioğlu, Ş. (2006). Öğretmen ve veli görüşlerine göre farklı sosyo ekonomik düzeydeki ailelerin ilköğretim birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin okuma yazma sürecini etkileme biçiminin değerlendirilmesi. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Çukurova University Institute of Social Sciences, Adana. Retrieved July 18, 2016 from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Say, Ö., Tunç Şahin, C. (2010). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin bilimsel okur yazarlık düzeylerinin incelenmesi. ZKÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 6(11), pp. 223–240. Retrieved July 12, 2016 from http://www.ijmeb.org/index.php/zkesbe/article/viewFile/221/170
South Carolina Department of Education. (2009). Good start grow smart: South Carolina early learning standards for 3,4 and 5-year-old children. Retrieved February 22, 2015from https://ed.sc.gov/scdoe/assets/file/programsservices/64/documents/EarlyLearningGoodStart.pdf
Süren, T. (2008). İlköğretim birinci kademe öğrencilerinde bilimsel okuryazarlık düzeyi. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Afyon Kocatepe University Institute of Social Sciences, Afyon. Retrieved July 12, 2016 from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Şahin, H. (2012). Beş altı yaşında çocuğu olan babaların babalık rolünü algılamaları ile aile katılım çalışmalarını gerçekleştirmeleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Gazi University Institute of Education Sciences, Ankara. Retrieved. July 12, 2016 from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Şahin F., Güven, İ., & Yurdatapan, M. (2011). Proje tabanlı eğitim uygulamalarının okul öncesi çocuklarında bilimsel süreç becerilerinin gelişimine etkisi. Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, (33), pp.157-176. Retrieved April 18, 2015 from http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/ marauded/article/download/1012000918/ 1012000799
Tansel, A. (2002). Determinants of School Attainment of Boys and Girls in Turkey:
Individual, Household and Community Factors. Economics of Education Review,
21(5), pp. 455-470. Retrieved July 11, 2016 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775701000280
Taştepe, T. (2012). Erken çocukluk dönemi fen ve matematik eğitimi içerik standartları değerlendirme araçlarının geliştirilmesi. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Gazi University Institute of Education Sciences, the Department of Preschool Education of Primary Department, Ankara. Retrieved July 12, 2014 from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/ Illinois Early Learning Standards (2002). The Illinois State Board of Education, Early Childhood Education. Retrieved February 30, 2015 from
Tosun, T. (2000). The beliefs of preservice elementary teachers toward science and science teaching. School Science and Mathematics, 100(7), pp. 374-379. Retrieved July 15, 2016 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1949-8594.2000.tb18179.x/pdf
Uysal, D. (2007). Okulöncesi eğitim kurumlarında uygulanan fen ve doğa etkinliklerinin işlevselliğine ilişkin öğretmen görüşleri. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Anadolu University, Institute of Education Sciences, Eskişehir. Retrieved February 30, 2016from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/
Watters, J.J.; Diezmann, C.M. (1998). This is nothing like school: Discourse and the social environment as key components in learning science. Early Child Development and Care, 140, pp.73-84. Retrieved February 01, 2015 from http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/
Wenner, G. (1993). Relationship between science knowledge levels and beliefs toward science instruction held by preservice elementary teachers. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2(3), pp. 461-468. Retrieved March 14, 2015 fromhttps://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/40188554.pdf
Wilson, R. (2002). Promoting the development of scientific thinking. Early childhood News.
Retrieved April 13, 2015 from http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleId=409
Worth, K., & Grollman, S. (2003). Worms, shadows and whirlpools: Science in the early childhood classroom. Washington: Education Development Center. Retrieved February from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481899.pdf
Wortham, S. C. (2006). Early childhood curriculum: Developmental bases for learning and teaching. New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Yates, S. & Goodrum, D. (1990). How confident are primary school teachers in teaching science? Research in Science Education, 20(1), pp.300-305.DOI:10.1007/BF0262050 6
Yılmaz-Tüzün Ö. (2008). Preservice elementary teachers’ beliefs about science teaching. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 19(2), pp.183-204.DOI:10.1007/s10972-007-90841
Zellman, G. L. & Waterman, J.M. (1998). Understanding the impact of parental school involvement on children’s educational outcomes. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(6), 370-380. Retrieved May 10, 2015 from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/002 20 679 809 597566
Zimmerman, C. (2000). The development of scientific reasoning skills. Developmental Review. 20(1), pp. 99–149. Retrieved May 12, 2016 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273229799904975