Elementary School Students’ Attitude toward Science and Related Variables
pp. 35-52 |
Worldwide studies have revealed an important issue in that an increasing percentage of students within the X – Y age group are not interested in science. Many students, especially females, have negative feelings and attitudes toward science, which discourages them from continuing with scientific inquiries. There are limited studies related to the factors predicting school students’ attitude toward science; therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationships among the seventh grade elementary students’ attitudes toward science, their learning approaches, motivational goals, science achievement and students’ nature of science (NOS) views. The questionnaires for this study were administered online to 3,598 seventh grade students in different regions and cities of Turkey. The convenience sampling method was used in this study. The correlation results revealed the positive relationship between attitude toward science and the other variables. Multiple regression analysis indicated that while students’ meaningful learning, self-efficacy, and nature of science views have a positive contribution, rote learning contributed negatively to the model. The findings also showed that parents’ income and education level had a significant effect on students’ attitude toward science.
Keywords: attitude toward science, motivational goal, self-efficacy, nature of science
Aldoplhe, F. S. G., Fraser, B. J., & Aldigre, J. M. (2003). A cross national study of learning environment and attitudes amoung junior secondary science students in Australia and Indonesia. Paper presented at the Third International Science, Mathematics and Technology Education Conference, East London, South Africa.
Aldridge, J. M., & Fraser, B. J. (2000). A cross-cultural study of classroom learning environments in Australia and Taiwan.Learning Environments Research, 3, 101–134.
Ali, M. M., Yager, R. E., Hacieminoglu, E., & Caliskan, İ. (2013). Changes in student attitudes regarding science when taught by teachers without experiences with a model professional development program. School Science and Mathematics, 113(3), 109-119.
Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Student’s learning strategies and motivation processes.Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260-270.
Anderman, E. R., & Young A. J. (1994). Motivation and strategy use in science: Individual differences and classroom effects.Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31, 811-831.
Archer, J., & McDonald, M. (1991). Gender roles and school subjects in adolescent girls. Educational Research, 33, 55-64.
Arısoy, N. (2007). Examining 8th grade students’ perception of learning environment of science classrooms inrelation to motivational beliefs and attitudes. Unpublished Theses in Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
Ausubel, D.P. (1963). The psychology of meaningful verbal learning. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Azizoğlu, N., & Çetin, G. (2009). The effect of learning style on middle schools students’ motivation and attitudes towards science, and the relationships among these variables. Kastamonu Education Journal, 17(1), 171-182.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148.
BouJaoude, S. B. (1992). The relationship between high school students' learning strategies and the change in their misunderstandings during a high school chemistry course. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(7), 687-699.
Buehl, M. M. (2003). At the crossroads: Exploring the intersection of epistemological beliefs, motivation, and culture. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, April, Chicago, IL.
Caliskan, İ. S. (2004). The effect of inquiry-based chemistry course on students' understanding of atom concept, learning approaches, motivation, self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs. Unpuplished master thesis, The Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Catsambis, S. (1995). Gender, race, ethnicity, and science education in the middle grades. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(3), 243-257.
Cavallo, A. M. L., & Schafer, L. E. (1994). Relationships between student’s meaningful learning orientation and their understanding of genetic topics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31(4), 393-418.
Cavallo, A. M. L. (1996).Meaningful learning reasoning ability and student’s understanding and problem of genetics topics.Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 625-656.
Cavallo, A. M. L., Rozman, M., Larabee, T., Ishikawa, C. (2001). Shifts in male and female students' learning, motivation, beliefs, and scientific understanding in inquiry-based college physics course. Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, St. Louis, MO.
Cavallo, A. M. L., Rozman, M., Blickenstaff, J., & Walker , N. (2003). Learning, reasoning, motivation, and epistemological beliefs. Journal of College Science Teaching, 33, 18-23.
Cavallo, A. M. L., Rozman, M., & Potter, W. H. (2004). Gender differences in learning constructs, shifts in learning constructs, and their relationship to course achievement in a structured inquiry, yearlong collage physic course for life science majors. School Science and Mathematics, 104(6), 288-301.
Cohen, J. W. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd edition). Hilsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
DeBacker, T. K., & Nelson, R. M. (2000). Motivation to learn science: Differences related to gender, class type, and ability level. Journal of Educational Research, 93(4), 245-254.
den Brok, P., Fisher, D., & Rickards, T. (2004). Predicting Australian Students’ Perceptions Of Their Teacher Interpersonal Behavior. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego.
Dhindsa, H. S. & Chung, G. (2003). Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students. Internalational Journal of Science Education, 25, 907-922.
Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040-1048.
Edmondson, K.M. (1989). The influence of students’ conceptions of scientific knowledge and their orientations to learning on their choices of learning strategy in a college introductory level biology course. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Edmondson, K.M., & Novak, D.N. (1993). The interplay of scientific epistemological views, learning strategies, and attitudes of college students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30, 547-559.
Fraser, J. B. (1978). Development of a test of science-related attitudes, Science Education, 62(4), 509-515.
Freedman, M. P. (1997). Relationship among laboratory instruction, attitude toward science, and achievement in science knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34, 343-357.
Garcia, T., & Pintrich, P. R. (1992). Critical thinking and its relationship to motivation, learning strategies, and classroom experiences. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Greenfield, T. A. (1996). Gender, etnicity, science achievement and attitudes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33,901-933.
Hacieminoglu, E., Yilmaz-Tuzun, O., & Ertepinar, H. (2009). Investigating elementary students’ learning approach, motivational goals and achievement in science. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 37, 72-83.
Hacieminoglu, E., Yilmaz-Tuzun, O., & Ertepinar, H. (2011). Middle school students’ attitude toward science in constructivist curriculum environment. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 2(3), 1-6.
Hacieminoglu, E., Yilmaz-Tuzun, O. & Ertepinar, E. (2012). Development and validation of nature of science instrument for elementary students. Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, (online published). doi:10.1080/03004279.2012.671840.
Hykle, J. A. (1993, April). Template for gender-equitable science program. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Atlanta, GA.
Jones, G.M., Howe, A., & Rua, M. J. (2000). Gender differences in students’ experiences, interests and attitude toward science and scientists. Science Education, 84, 180-192.
Kahle, J.B.; & Damnjanovic, A. (1997). How research help address gender equity. Research Matters- to the Science Teacher, 9703, 1-3. Available on line at http://www.narst.org/publications/research/gender2.cfm.
Kang, S., Scharmann, L. C., Noh, T., & Koh, H. (2005). The influence of students’ cognitive and motivational variables in respect of cognitive conflict and conceptual change. International Journal of Science Education, 27, 1037–1058.
Kaplan, A., & Midgley, C. (1997). The effect of achievement goals: Does level of perceived academic competence make a difference? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 415-435.
Kizilgunes, B., Tekkaya, C., & Sungur, S. (2009). Modeling the relations among students’ epistemological beliefs, motivation, learning approach, and achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 102(4), 243-255.
Klopfer, L. E. (1976). Astructure for the affective domain in the relation to science education. Science Education, 60, 299-312.
Koran, M. L., & Koran, J. J. (1984). Aptitude- treatment interaction research in science education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 21(8), 793-808.
Lawrenz, F. P. (1976). Student perception of the classroom learning environment in biology, chemistry and physics courses.Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 13, 351– 353.
Lin, Y. G., & McKeachie, W. J. (1999). College student intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivation and learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED435954).
Middleton, M., & Midgley, C. (1997). Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: An underexplored aspect of goal orientation. Journal Educational Psychology, 89, 70-718.
Miller, L., Lietz, P., & Kotte, D. (2002). On decreasing gender differences and attitudinal changes. Factors influencing Australian and English pupils’ choice of a career in science. Psyhology, Evolution, and Gender, 4, 69- 92.
Murphy, P. K., & Alexander, P. (2000). A motivated exploration of motivation terminology. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 3-53.
Newhouse, N. (1990). Implication of attitudes and behavior research for environmental conservation. The Journal of Environmental Education, 22(1), 26-32.
Novak, J. D., Ring, D. G., & Tamir, P. (1971). Interpretations of research findings in terms of Ausubel’s theory and implications for science Education. Science Education, 55(4), 483-526.
Novak, J. (1988). Learning science and the science of learning. Studies in science education, 15, 77-101.
Novak, J., Kerr, P., Donn, S., & Cobern, W. (1989).Epistemological issues in science education. Symposium presented at the Annual Conferance of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, San Francisco, CA.
Oakes, J. (1990). Opportunities, achievement and choice: Woman and minority students in science and mathematics.Review of Research in Education, 16, 153-222.
Oh. P. S., & Yager, R. E. (2004). Development of Constructivist Science Classrooms and Changes in Student Attitudes toward Science Learning. Science Education International, 15(2), 105-113.
Osborne, J. (2003). Attitudes towards science: a review of the literature and its implications, International Journal of Science Education, 25(9), 1049-1079.
Pallant, J. (2001). The SPSS survival manual: A step-by-step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin
Piburn, M. D., & Baker, D.R. (1993). If I were the teacher…qualitative study of attitude toward science. Science Education 77, 393-406.
Pintrinch, P., & Schunk, D. (2002). Motivation in education. Merrill Prentice Hall.
Puacharearn, P. & Fisher, D. (2004). The effectiveness of cooperative learning integrated with constructivist teaching on improving learning environments in Thai secondary schoolscience classrooms. Curtin University of Technology, Australia.
Qian, G. (1995). The role of epistemological beliefs and motivational goals in ethnically diverse high school students' learning from science text. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the national reading conference, New Orleans, LA.
Rakıcı, N. (2004). Eight grade students’ perceptions of their science learning environment and teachers’ interpersonal behavior. Unpublished thesis submitted to the graduate school of Natural and Applied Sciences of the Middle East Technical University.
Riah, H. & Fraser, B. J. (1997). Chemistry learning environment in Brunei Darusssalam’s secondary schools. In D.L. Fisher & T. Rickards (Eds.), Science, Mathematics and Technology Education and National Development: Proceedings of the Vietnam conference (pp. 108-120). Hanoi; Vietnam.
Schibeci, R. A., & Riley, J. P. (1986). Influence of students’ background and perceptions on science attitudes and achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23(3), 177-187.
Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 498-504.
Schommer, M. (1993). Epistemological development and academic performance among secondary students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 406-411.
Simpson, R. D., & Oliver, J. S. (1985). Attitude toward science and achievement motivation profiles of male and female science students in grades 6 through 10. Science Education, 69(4), 511-526.
Simpson, R. D., & Oliver J. S. (1990). A summary of major influences on attitude and achievemevt in science among adolescent students. Science Education, 74, 1-18.
Skaalvik, E. M. (1997). Self-enhancing and self-defeating ego orientation: Relations with task and avoidance orientation, achievement, selfperceptions, and anxiety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 71–81.
Smist, J. M., Archambault, F. X., & Owens, S. V. (1994). Gender difference in attitude toward science. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, USA).
Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Thinking styles. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tabachnick, B. G. & Field, L. S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics (3rd Ed.). New York: Harpercollins College Publishers.
Telli, S. Cakiroglu, J., & den Brok, P. (2006). Turkish secondary education students’ perceptions of their classroom learning environment and their attitude towards Biology. In D. L. Fisher & M. S. Khine(Eds.), Contemporary approaches to research on learning environments: world views (pp.517-542).
Tsai, C. C. (1998a). An analysis of Taiwanese eighth graders' science achievement, scientific epistemological beliefs and cognitive structure outcomes after learning basic atomic theory. International Journal of Science Education, 20, 413−425.
Tsai, C. C. (1998b). An analysis of scientific epistemological beliefs and learning orientations of Taiwanese eighth graders.Science Education, 82, 473−489.
Wahyudi, W. & David F. T. (2004). The status of science classroom learning environments in Indonesian lower secondary schools. Learning Environment Research, 7, 43-63.
Weinburgh, M. (1995). Gender differences in student attitudes toward science: a meta-analysis 18. of the literature from 1970 to 1991, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32, 387-398.
Wolfolk, A. (2004). Educational Psychology. Boston, MA, Allyn & Bacon.
Wolters, C. A., Yu, S. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (1996). The relation between goal orientation and students’ motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8, 211-238.
Zhang, L. (2000). University students’ learning approaches in three cultures: An investigation of Biggs’s 3P model. The Journal of Psychology, 134(1), 37-55.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Marketing Mix for E-commerce
Elena V. Pogorelova, Irina V. Yakhneeva, Anna N. Agafonova & Alla O. Prokubovskaya
pp. 6744-6759 |
The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the need to study the process of transformation of marketing in e-commerce, as the active involvement of business organizations in the field of e-business is often accompanied by problems of applying the usual marketing tools in a virtual environment. The article seeks to identify changes in the elements of the marketing mix in e-commerce in accordance with the trend of e-business and Internet technology. The leading approach to the study of this issue is the marketing model 7P, allowing structuring the changes in a complex of marketing tools with regard to trade and information services of online stores. The results of research were: to establish the determining role of technology and information support of consumers; to identify the areas of transformation of the marketing mix in e-commerce, demonstrating the significant influence of consumers on the content of 7P and personalize the supply of goods and services. The article may be useful for online stores in case of marketing strategy development, identification of the most important elements of 7P, assessment of marketing effectiveness and optimization of marketing costs.
Keywords: Customer behavior, digital economy, e-commerce, marketing mix
Agafonova, A. N. (2014). Information Service in the Internet Economy. Moscow: Biblio-Globus, 152 p.
Baudrillard, J. (2001). The System of Things. Moscow: All-Russian Library for Foreign literature named after M. I. Rudomino, 246 p.
Booms, B. H. & Bitner, M. J. (1981). Marketing strategies and organization structures for service firms. Marketing of Services, Conference Proceedings: American Marketing Association, Illinois, 47-51.
Chaffey, D. (2007). E-Business and E-Commerce Management. Harlow: Pearson Education, 663 p.
Eiglier, P. & Langeard, E. (1976). Principes de politique marketing pour les enterprises de services. Marseille: Universite d’Aix-Marselle, 26.
Executive summary: Advertising Expenditure Forecasts. (2015). Direct access: http://www.zenithoptimedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Adspend-forecasts-June-2015-executive-summary.pdf
Global Trust in Advertising. Winning Strategies for an Evolving Media Landscape (2015). Direct access: http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/nielsenglobal/apac/docs/reports/2015/nielsen-global-trust-in-advertising-report-september-2015.pdf
Kalyanam, К. & McIntyre, Sh. (2002). The E-Marketing Mix: A Contribution of the E-Tailing Wars. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(4), 487-499.
Kelly, К. (1999) New Rules for the New Economy. New York: Penguin Group, 181 p.
Kotler, Ph. & Armstrong, G. (2010). Principles of Marketing. New Jersey Pearson Education, 637 p.
Kotlyarov, I. D. (2012). Trends in the Evolution of E-commerce. Internet Marketing, 4(70), 252-258.
Lee, J.K. & Lehto, X. (2010). E-personalization and online privacy features: the case with travel websites. Journal of Management and Marketing, 4, 122-131.
Lopsulin, S. (2016). E-commerce Market in Russia reached $ 13.9 Billion. Direct access: http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/2016-03-02_rynok_elektronnoj_kommertsii_v_rossii_dostig_13
Lovelock, Ch. H. & Wirtz, J. (2007). Services Marketing: People, Technology. New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 648 p.
McCarthy J. & Jerome E. (1964). Basic Marketing. A Managerial Approach. Illinois: Irwin, 242 p.
Project management: the basics of professional knowledge, national requirements for professionals’ competence. (2010). Moscow: Project, PRACTICE, 250 p.
Rathmel, J. (1974). Marketing in the Service Sector. Mass: Winthrop Publishers, 232 p.
Rueter, Th. (2014). The price is right – then it's not. Direct access: https://www.internetretailer.com/2014/08/04/price-rightthen-its-not
Tapscott, D. (1999). Electronic and Digital Society: the Pros and Cons of the Era of Network Intelligence. London: INT Press, 324 p.
Veblen, T. (2011). The Theory of the Leisure Class. Moscow: Lıbrokom, 368 p.
Yakhneeva, I. V. & Podolyak, M. I. (2009). Metrics of Success: How to Assess the Results of the Internet-marketing. Internet Marketing, 3, 176-183.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Circular Migration and its Impacts in the Current Stage of Globalization
Magdalena Privarova and Andrej Privara
pp. 12909-12917 |
In recent years, the concept of circular migration is increasingly getting into the center of attention among economic theorists as well as decision-makers in the field of international labor migration. In the current conditions of globalization, circular migration could solve some of the pitfalls encountered on the return migration. This paper outlines the genesis of the concept of circular migration and analyses the impacts of this phenomenon on the development of countries of origin. It also draws attention to the need of establishing mechanisms to ensure the circulating nature of migration movement. To do this, it is necessary to meet certain conditions. In this context, international cooperation on migration is a necessary condition for a “win-win-win” strategy as an important part of circular migration. The paper outlines the various forms of this cooperation.
Keywords: Circular migration, development of countries of origin, international cooperation
Ammassari, S. & Black, R. (2008). Harnessing the Potential of Migration and return to promote Development in Asia and the pacific..
Bovenkerk, F. (1974). The Sociology of return Migration: a Bibliographic Essay. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.
Cassarino, J.-P. (2004). Theorising Return Migration: a revisited conceptual approach to return migrants. EUI Working Papers No. 24.
Commisssion des Communautés européennes, Communication de la Commission au Parlement européen, au Conseil économique et social européen et au Comité des régions relative aux migrations circulaires et aux partenariats pour la mobilité entre l´Union européenne et les pays tiers. COM (2007) 248, Bruxelles, 16 mai 2007.
Dayton-Johnson, J. & Xenogiani, T. (2007). Immigration, développement et arbitrages entre politiques. Revue d´économie du développement, No 2.
GCIM (2005). Les migrations dans un monde interconnecté: nouvelles perspectives d´action. Rapport de la Commission mondiale sur les migrations internationales. Bruxelles.
GFMD: Rapport de la première réunion du Forum mondial sur la migration e tle développement. Bruylant, Bruxelles, 16 mai 2007.
Ghosh, B. (2009). Return Migration: Reshaping Policy Approaches. In Ghosh, B. (ed.), Return Migration: What Works?, GMF Immigration Paper Series No. 09.
Hugo, G. (1983). New Conceptual Approaches to Migration in the Context of Urbanization: A Discussion Based on Indonesian Experience. In Morrison, P.A. (ed.), Population Movements. Their Forms and Functions in Urbanization and Development, Ordina Editions, Liège.
Katseli, L., Lucas & R.E.B., Xenogiani, T. (2006). Effects of migrations on sending countries: what do we know?, OECD Research programe on Economic and Social Effects of Migration on Sending Countries, Working Paper No. 250.
Newland, K., Agunias, D., & Terrazas, A. (2008). Learning by Doing: Experiences of Circular Migration. Insight, Migration Policy Institute.
Newland, K. (2009). Circular Migration and Human Development. UNDP, Human Development Research Paper No. 42. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/newland_2009.pdf
Poutvaara, P. (2005). Public education in an integrated Europe: Studying to migrate and teaching to stay? ZEI Working Paper B 03-2005, ZEI – Center for European Integration Studies, University of Bonn.
Ushakov, D. & ,Zhmykhova, N. (2015). International migrant flows and national migration policy: Quality correlation and scenarios of interdependence (the case of European Union). Actual Problems of Economics, # 8.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Teaching Listening Comprehension: Bottom-Up Approach
Anvar N. Khuziakhmetov & Galina V. Porchesku
pp. 1989-2001 |
Improving listening comprehension skills is one of the urgent contemporary educational problems in the field of second language acquisition. Understanding how L2 listening comprehension works can have a serious influence on language pedagogy. The aim of the paper is to discuss the practical and methodological value of the notion of the perception base of the language. It also highlights the importance of structural features and frequency of linguistic units in helping to determine teaching priorities in English language teaching, specifically, when training listening skills. The leading approaches to the problem of the paper are the psycholinguistic and statistical ones which help to identify practical teaching principles. The paper illustrates these approaches with the findings on the perceptually relevant features and frequency of the English words and sentences and their linguistic features. The findings are discussed in terms of their application in developing bottom-up listening skills and tested in a listening comprehension experiment. The materials of this article may be of use to those who are interested in problems of speech perception and improving the existing listening comprehension teaching techniques
Keywords: Listening comprehension; speech perception; bottom-up strategies; linguistic features; perception base; frequency
Abramov, V. Y. (2004). Mono- and bilingual mechanisms of oral speech perception: PhD Thesis. Samara: Povolzhskaya State Academy of Telecommunication and Informatics, 274 p.
Aponte-de-Hanna C. (2012, September 15) Listening strategies in the L2 classroom. College Quarterly. 15 (1). Direct access: http://collegequarterly.ca/2012-vol15-num01-winter/index.html
Baiburova, O. V. (2008). The mechanism of perception of words of different syllable type: PhD Thesis. Perm: Perm State Pedagogical University. 220 p.
Biber, D., Johanson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., Finegan, E. (2004). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman. 204 p.
Chugaeva, T. N. (2007). Perception aspect of the sound system of the English language. Yekaterinburg-Perm: PNTs UrO RAN. 246 p.
Chugaeva, T. N. (2009). The sound system of the English language in the perception aspect: PhD Thesis. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University. 145 p.
Chugaeva, T. N., Thacker. A., Baiburova, O. V., Oshchepkova, O. V., Novikov, A. V. (2005). English listening comprehension manual. Perm: Perm University. 152 p.
Delvaux, V., Huet, K., Calomme, M., Piccaluga, M., Harmegnies, B. (2015, November 17) Teaching listening in L2: A successful training method using the word spotting task. Direct access: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs-proceedings/ ICPhS2015/Papers/ICPHS0784.pdf
Dzhaparidze, Z. N. (1985). Perception phonetics: the main points. Tbilisi: Metsniereba, 118.
Fedotova, N. L. (2015). Methods of Russian as a second language teaching. Direct access: http://www.zlat.spb.ru/CatalogImages/File/pdf/chapters/metodika%20prepodavaniya_chapter.pdf
Frumkina, R.M. (1990). Experimental methods in Linguistics. Moscow: Soviet Entsyklodedia. 682 p.
Gilman, R. A. & Moody, L. M. (1984). What Practitioners say about Listening. Foreign Language Annals, 17, 31-34.
Govorun, S. V. (2015). Strategies of educational listening. Philology Sciences, 5 (47), 76-81.
Graham, S. (2006). Listening comprehension. System, 34, 165–182.
Grigoryeva, E. V., Leyfa, I. I., Yatsevich, L. P., Demyanenko, M. A., Makovey, N. V., Pavlushkina, T. V. & Masalimova, A. R. (2015). Designing technology of English language teaching content based on international component. Review of European Studies, 7 (1), 123-129.
Gutman, E. V., Masalimova, A. R., Shaidullina, A. R., Nizamieva, A. M. & Mukhamadieva, A. H. (2014). Foreign language discipline integrative potential in the students’ research competence development. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 11, 1099-1103.
Howard, J. & Major, J. (2004, October 9) Guidelines for designing effective English language teaching materials. Seoul, South Korea. Direct access: http://www.paaljapan.org/resources/proceedings/PAAL9/pdf/Howard.pdf.
Hulstijn, J.H. (2003). Connectionist models of language processing and the training of listening skills with the aid of multimedia software. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 16 (5), 413-425.
Hunsaker, R. A. (1990). Understanding and developing the skills of oral communication. Englewood, Morton Press. 184 p.
Karimvand, P. N. (2011). Psycholinguistic Perspectives on Comprehension in Second Language Acquisition. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2 (6), 1268-1273.
Kasevich, V. B. (2010). Speech perception. Philosophy of the language. Perm: Perm Scientific Centre URo RAN, 28-32.
Khaleeva, I. I., (1989). The theoretical basis of teaching foreign language comprehension. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola. 238 p.
Krause, M. (2002). The dynamics of the mechanism of the word identification under different conditions of foreign language learning. Minich: Verlag Otto Sagner. 173 p.
Leech, G. (2001, April 23) The Role of Frequency in ELT. Direct access: http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/doc_library/linguistics/leechg/leech_2001.pdf
Lopatina, O. V., Borisov, A. M., Leyfa, I. I., Galimzyanova, I. I., Yatsevich, L. P., Demyanenko, M. A. & Masalimova, A.R. (2015). Role of foreign language teacher shaping students’ research skills. Asian Social Science, 11 (4), 135-140.
Masalimova, A. R., Porchesku, G. V. & Liakhnovitch, T. L. (2016). Linguistic Foundation of Foreign Language Listening Comprehension. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 11(1), 123-131.
Mendelsohn, D. (1994). Learning to listen: a strategy based approach for the second language learner. California: Dominie Press. 149 p.
Mendelsohn, D. (1998). Teaching Listening. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 81-101.
Miller, G. A. & Selfridge, J. A. (1950). Verbal context and the recall of meaningful material. American Journal of Psychology, 63, 176-175.
Porchesku, G. V. (2013). The structure of the English sentence in the perception aspect: PhD Thesis. Nizhny Novgorod, Kirov: VSHU. 195 p.
Richards, J. C. (2008). Teaching Listening and Speaking. Cambridge University Press. 337 p.
Sekerina, I. A. (2006). Method of event-related brain potentials in experimental psycholinguistics. Topics in the study of language, 3, 22-45.
Shcherba, L. V. (1974). Teaching foreign languages at secondary school: general problems of teaching methods. Edited by E. V. Rakhmanova. Moscow. Vysshaya Shkola. 111 p.
Shtern, A. S. (1992). Perception aspect of speech activity: experimental research. St. Petersburg: St.Petersburg University. 236 p.
Slater, J., Kraus, N. (2015). The role of rhythm in perceiving speech in noise. Cognitive Processing, 17(1), 210 p.
Tsarevskaya, I. V. & Litovchenko, L. N. (2015, May 22) To the question of listening in learning a foreign language in non-linguistic university. Retrieved from http://www.science-education.ru/ru/article/view?id=21713
Vandergrift, L. (2009, October, 17) Listening: Theory and practice in modern foreign language competence. Retrieved from https://www.llas.ac.uk/resources/gpg/67
Vandergrift, L. & Goh, C. M. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening: metacognition in action. New York: Routledge. 315 p.
Ventsov, A. V. & Kasevich, V. B. (1994). Problem of speech perception. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg university. 232 p.
Zalevskaya, A. A. (1988). Text comprehension: psycholinguistic approach. Kaliningrad: Kalin. 95 p.
Zinder, L. R. & Shtern, A. S. (1972). Factors which influence the perception of a word. Proceedings of IV Symposium on Psycholinguistics and Communication Theory, 1, 149-159.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Challenges of International Students’ Adjustment to a Higher Education Institution
Tatiana A. Baklashova & Andrey V. Kazakov
pp. 1821-1832 |
The relevance of this work is determined by the real problems of foreign students’ adaptation to the educational environment of Russian high school. International students face certain problems, complicating adaptation to a new lifestyle, to the educational environment of the Russian high school, to a completely new social and cultural environment. Every year more and more foreign students come to Russia to get higher education, and every foreign student goes through an objective process of adaptation to college life. This article aims to develop recommendations, basic principles for an educational institution that provides educational services to foreign citizens. The leading method to the study of this problem is a qualitative method of case-study, which allows to focus on practical knowledge about real everyday situations, faced by foreign students in Russia. The case-study method provides an opportunity to pay close attention to the impact of social, cultural and academic factors on their adaptation. The article revealed that international students often face a series of transitional difficulties immediately after arriving to study in Russian universities. The problems are cataloged according to academic, social and cultural aspects. The article states that in order to overcome these problems, the students use resources provided mainly by the university. On the other hand, it is found out that these problems motivate foreign students to develop strategies to meet emerging challenges. The data obtained can be used in the practice of the university administration, faculty and staff to timely detect and eliminate academic, social and cultural challenges faced by international students at the beginning of their studies in Russia. Attention to these issues will provide more adequate support for foreign students.
Keywords: International students, higher education, academic challenges, social isolation, cultural adjustment
Bondareva, S. V. & Bondarev, N. A. (2014) Gender differences in manifestations of anxiety among foreign students. Personality, family and society: questions of pedagogy and psychology, 38, 159-164.
Celleja, D. (2000). The world at your door. Canadian Business, 73(20), 108-111.
Fomina, T. K. (2004) Foreign students in Russian medical high schools: internalization of professional value. PhD Thesis. Volgograd, Volgograd State Medical university, 289.
Gelbras, Q. (2002, May 7) Has Russia Chinese future? Komsomolskaya Pravda, 8 p.
Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., Wiseman, R. (2003) The intercultural development inventory: a measure of intercultural sensitivity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27, 421-443.
Kamara, I. (2012) Stress and its influence on the process of African students’ adaptation in Russia. Society: sociology, psychology, pedagogy, 2, 66-70.
Knyazeva, E. M. & Kurina, L. N. (2010) Features of chemistry teaching to foreign students. Modern problems of science and education, 6, 39-43.
Kosheleva, E. Y. (2015) Effects of stress factors on the adaptation to the academic process in the Russian high school students of foreign and Russian. Almanac of modern science and education, 4, 95-98.
Kravets, J. L. (2013) Social adaptation of foreign students in the educational environment. Psychopedagogy in law enforcement, 3, 31-35.
Malykhin, M. (2015, February, 19) A student – a step to rating. Vedomosti, 8 p.
Opendoors. (2015, April 17) Report on international educational exchange. Direct access: www.iie.org/opendoors
Russell, J., Rosenthal, D., Thomson, G. (2010) The international student experience: three styles of adaptation. Higher Education, (60) 2, 235-249.
Tatarko, A. N. (2009) Migrants in Moscow: threats real and imaginary. Migration processes and adaptation issues, 4, 73-97.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change
Rhonda Christensen & Gerald Knezek
pp. 773-788 |
The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students’ beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered from 1576 middle school students from across the United States in 2014 to validate the instrument and establish the measurement properties of the instrument’s scales. Factor analysis revealed two stable constructs representing beliefs and intentions, which were reconfirmed through multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis techniques. Internal consistency reliability was found to be respectable for the survey as a whole as well as the two separate scales. The Climate Change Attitude Survey was created to fill a void in the measurement of middle school students’ affective responses to the environment and climate change. Educators may find this survey useful for assessing pre- to post intervention attitude changes as well as for identifying differences in selected groups of students. Further development is targeted to include adding new constructs as well as testing the instrument with different population subgroups.
Keywords: environment, middle school students, climate change, survey instrument
Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Juhl & J. Beckman (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665-683.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitude and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Alwin, D.F., & Krosnick, J.A. (1991). Aging, cohorts, and the stability of sociopolitical orientations over the life span.American Journal of Sociology, 97(1), 169-195.
Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2012). Balancing acts elementary school girls’ negotiations of femininity, achievement, and science. Science Education, 96(6), 967–989.
Ballantyne, R., Connell, S., & Fien, J. (2006). Students as catalysts of environmental change: A framework researching intergenerational influence through environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 12(3/4), 413-427.
Benson, J., & Clark, F. (1982). A guide for instrument development and validation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 36(12), 789-800.
Bialo, E. R., & Sivin-Kachala, J. (1996). The effectiveness of technology in schools: A summary of recent research. School Library Media Quarterly, 25(1), 51-57.
Boeve-de-Paw, J., & Van Petegem, P. (2010). A cross-national perspective on youth environmental attitudes. The Environmentalist, 30(2), 133-144.
Bradley, J.C., Waliczek, R.M., & Zajicek, J.M. (1999). Relationship between environmental knowledge and environmental attitude of high school students. Journal of Environmental Education, 30(3), 17-21.
Carlsson, F., Kataria, M., Krupnick, A.J., Lampi, E., Lofgren, A., Qin, P., Chung, S., & Sterner, T. (2010). Paying for mitigation: a multiple country study. Discussion Paper. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Champeau, R. (1997). Environmental education in Wisconsin: Are we walking the talk? Stevens Point, WI: Wisconsin Center for Environmental Education.
Chawla, L. (1999). Life paths into effective environmental action. Journal of Environmental Education, 31(1), 15-26.
Choi, S., Niyogi, D., Shepardson, D.P., & Charusombat, U. (2010). Do earth and environmental science textbooks promote middle and high school students’ conceptual development about climate change? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 91(7), 889-898.
Christensen, R., & Knezek, G. (2002). Instruments for assessing the impact of technology in education. In L. Liu, L. Johnson, C. Maddux and N. Henderson (Eds.). Evaluation and Assessment in Educational Information Technology. New York, NY: The Haworth Press, Inc.
Christensen, R., & Knezek, G. (2004). Validating a Handheld Computing Self-Efficacy Scale. In R. Ferdig, C. Crawford, R. Carlsen, N. Davis, J. Price, R. Weber & D. Willis (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2004 (pp. 879-884). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Davidson, D., & Freudenburg, W. (1996). Gender and environmental risk concerns: A review of available research.Environment and Behavior, 28(3), 302-339.
DeVellis, R.F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
DeVellis, R.F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications, (2nd ed). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
DeWaters, J., & Powers, S. (2013). Establishing measurement criteria for an energy literacy questionnaire. Journal of Environmental Education, 44(1), 38-55.
DeWaters, J., Qaqish, B., Graham, M., & Powers, S. (2013). Designing an energy literacy questionnaire for middle and high school youth. Journal of Environmental Education, 44(1), 56-78.
Dijkstra, E.M. & Goedhart, M.J. (2012). Development and validation of the ACSI: measuring students’ science attitudes, pro-environmental behaviour, climate change attitudes and knowledge. Environmental Education Research, 18(6), 733-749.
Dunn-Rankin, P., Knezek, G., Wallace, S., & Zhang, S. (2004). Scaling methods (2nd ed). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Europeans’ Attitudes toward climate change. (2009, July). Special Eurobarometer Report. European Commission.
Fortus, D. (2014). Attending to affect (editorial). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(7), 821-835.
Gardos, V., & Dodd, D. (1995). An immediate response to environmentally disturbing news and the environmental attitudes of college students. Psychological Reports, 77(3), 1121-1122.
Haney, J.J., Czeriak, C.M., & Lumpe, A.T. (1996). Teacher beliefs and intentions regarding the implementation of science education reform strands. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(9), 971-993.
Infographic: Attitudes toward climate change: Multiple country study. (2011). Resources for the Future.http://www.rff.org/Publications/Resources/Pages/178-Attitudes-Toward-Climate-Change.aspx
Karpiak, C.P. & Baril, G.L. (2008). Moral reasoning and concern for the environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(3), 203-208. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2007.12.001.
Knafo, A., & Galansky, N. (2008). The influence of children on their parents’ values. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(3), 1143-1161.
Knezek, G., & Christensen, R. (1996). Validating the computer attitude Questionnaire. Paper presented to the Southwest Educational Research Association annual conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, January, 1996.
Knezek, G., Christensen, R., Tyler-Wood, T., & Periathiruvadi, S. (2013). Impact of environmental power monitoring activities on middle school student perceptions of STEM. Science Education International, 21(1), 98-123.
Lawrenz, F. (1988). Prediction of student energy knowledge and attitudes. School Science and Mathematics, 88(7), 543-549.
Le Hebel, R., Montpied, P., & Fontanieu, V. (2014). What can influence students’ environmental attitudes? Results from a study of 15-year-old students in France. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 9(3), 329-345.
Leiserowitz, A., Maibach, E., Roser-Renouf, C., Feinberg, G., & Howe, P. (2013). Climate change in the American mind: Americans’ global warming beliefs and attitudes in April, 2013. Yale University and George Mason University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication.
Leppanen, J.M., Haahla, A.E., Lensu, A.M., & Kuitunen, M.T. (2012). Parent-child similarity in environmental attitudes: A pairwise comparison. Journal of Environmental Education, 43(3), 162-176.
McMillan, E.E., Wright, T., & Beazley, K. (2004). Impact of a university-level environmental studies class on students’ values.Journal of Environmental Education, 35(3), 19-28.
Meinhold, J., & Malkus, A. (2005). Adolescent environmental behaviors. Can knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy make a difference? Environment and Behavior, 37(4), 511-532.
Metin, M. (2010). A study on development a general attitude scale about environmental issues for students in different grade levels. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 1-19.
Milfont, T.L., & Duckitt, J. (2010). The environmental attitudes inventory: A valid and reliable measure to assess the structure of environmental attitudes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(1), 80-94.
Mills, L., Wakefield, J., Najmi, A., Surface, D., Christensen, R. & Knezek, G. (2011). Validating the computer attitude questionnaire NSF ITEST (CAQ N/I). In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 (pp. 1572-1579). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
Musser, L.M., & Malkus, A.J. (1994). The children’s attitudes toward the environment scale. Journal of Environmental Education, 94(25), 22-26.
Peterman, K., Kermish-Allen, R., Knezek, G., Christensen, R., & Tyler-Wood, T. (2015). Measuring student career interest within the context of technology-enhanced STEM projects: A cross-project comparison study based on the Career Interest Questionnaire. (Unpublished manuscript submitted for publication).
Robertson, W.H., & Barbosa, A.C. (2015). Global climate change and the need for relevant curriculum. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 10(1), 35-44.
Sarkar, M. (2011). Secondary students’ environmental attitudes: The case of environmental education in Bangladesh. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 1(3), 106-116.
Schultz, P.W., Gouveia, V.V., Cameron, L.D., Tankha, G., Schmuck, P., & Franek, M. (2005). Values and their relationship to environmental concern and conservation behavior. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(4), 457-475.
Sears, D.O., & Funk, C.L. (1999). Evidence of the long-term persistence of adults’ political predispositions. Journal of Politics, 61(1), 1-28.
Sheppard, B.H., Hartwick, J., & Warshaw, P.R. (1988). The theory of reasoned action: A meta-analysis of past research with recommendations for modifications and future research. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(3), 325–343.
Sinatra, G.M., Kardash, C.M., Taasoobshirazi, G., & Lombardi, D. (2012). Promoting attitude change and expressed willingness to take action toward climate change in college students. Instructional Science, 40(1), 1-17.
SPSS. (2010). IBM SPSS Statistics for Macintosh, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Tosunglu, C. (1993). A study on the dimension and determinants of environmental attitudes. PhD thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Tyler-Wood, T., Knezek, G., & Christensen, R. (2010). Instruments for assessing interest in STEM content and careers.Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 18(2), 341-363.
Weigel, R., & Weigel, R. (1978). Environmental concern: The development of a measure. Environment and Behavior, 10(1), 3-15.
Yilmaz, O., Boone, W.J., & Andersen, H.O. (2004). Views of elementary and middle school Turkish students toward environmental issues. International Journal of Science Education, 26(12), 1527-1546.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
The Problem of Reading and Reading Culture Improvement of Students-Bachelors of Elementary Education in Modern High Institution
Lera A. Kamalova & Natal’ya D. Koletvinova
pp. 473-484 |
This article is aimed to study the problems of reading and improve reading culture of students-bachelors of elementary education in modern high institutions and development of the most effective methods and techniques for improving of reading culture of students in the study of Humanities disciplines. The leading method to the study of this problem is a pedagogical experiment (ascertainment, formation and control stages of experiment), and the method of expert estimations, statistical processing of quantitative research results. The article identifies the most effective methodological techniques of reading culture improvement of undergraduate students, future specialists of elementary education in their learning process at the University; We offered the methodology of reading culture improvement for the undergraduate students of "Elementary education" profile, providing thoughtful skill of reading of the works of various styles and genre, creative reading skill, formation of reading competence of students.
Keywords: elementary education, reading skill, reading culture, personal and professional development, creative reading, means of communication
Adler, M. (2014). How to read books. A guide to reading the great works. The publishing house Mann, Ivanov and Ferber, 344.
Akimova, A. G. (2014). The culture of reading of youth: myths and reality. Electronic source: http://lib.1september.ru/2006/08/16.htm
Approximate program of academic subjects. (2010). Moscow, Education, 400.
Chudinova, V. P. (2008). Reading of children as a national value. Electronic source: http://www.polemics.ru.
Granick, G. G., Bondarenko, S. M. & Kontsevaya, L. A. (2007). When the book teaches, 256.
Kamalova, L. A. & Ul’yanitskaya, T. V. (2014). The study of the pedagogical values of the future elementary school teachers,Life Science Journal, 11(10s), 522-526.
Kamalova, L. A. (2015). Formation of Professional Competences of “Primary Education” Profile Students While the Studying Process at the University, Review of European Studies, 7(1), 94-100.
Khuziakhmetov, A. N., Shafikova, G. R. & Kapranova, V. A. (2015). Conditions of Educational Environment for the Development of Teenagers’ Moral Relations. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 10 (4), 515-521.
Kozyrev, V. A. & Chernyak, V. D. (2007). The reading range and Russian language ability of the student. Bulletin of the Herzen University, 47.
Likhachev, D. S. (2006). Writing about the good and the beautiful. SPb., Logos, 234.
Mc Luhan, M. (2005). The Gutenberg Galaxy. The development of man print, 45-46.
Novik, N. N. & Podgórecki, J. A. (2015). Model of Developing Communication Skills among Adolescents with Behavioral Problems. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 10 (4), 579-587.
Pennac, D. (2015). Essay as a novel. Moscow, Scooter, 196.
Ribakova, L. A., Parfilova, G. G., Karimova, L. Sh. & Karimova, R. B. (2015). Evolution of Communicative Competence in Adolescents Growing Up in Orphanages. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 10 (4), 589-594.
Sadykova, A. G., Yashina, M. E. & Sharafieva, A. D. (2014). Citation as a stimulus to boost students’ communication skills at the English lessons. English Language Teaching, 7 (12), 12-25.
Sagitova, R. R. (2014). Training students to be autonomous learners. International Journal of Humanities Education, 12 (1),27-34.
Svetlovskaya, N. N. & Peach-ool, T. S. (2007). How to help children who don't want to learn to read. Publishing House Archi: 54.
The national programme for support and development of reading. (2007). Library, 10-28.
Tikhomirova, I. I.(2008). About the development of creative reading in Russia: a case history. School library, 68-76.
Valeev, A. A. & Baranova, A. R. (2013). The development of the future engineers' capacity for creative self-realization. 16th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, ICL, 2013 (pp.436-437). Kazan, Russian Federation: Kazan National Research Technological University.
Valeeva, L. A. & Valeeva, R. A. (2013). Development of future engineers' critical thinking in foreign language teaching. 16th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, ICL, 2013 (рр. 438-439). Kazan, Russian Federation: Kazan National Research Technological University.
Volkova, E. A. (2012).Transformation reading student youth. Abstract of the dissertation on competition of degree of candidate of pedagogical Sciences: 28.11.2012. Krasnodar, 35.
Vorontsov, A. V. (2009). Reading as a socio-economic problem. Society. Environment. Development, 28.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Investigating High School Students’ Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts
Mageswary Karpudewan, David F. Treagust, Mauro Mocerino, Mihye Won & A. L. Chandrasegaran
pp. 845-863 |
This study investigated the year 12 students’ (N = 56) understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts after instruction using two conceptual tests, the Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 1(CECT-1) consisting of nine two-tier multiple-choice items and the Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 2(CECT-2) consisting of four structured questions. Both these tests were administered before and after the intervention. Students’ responses to the items in both the instruments indicated limited understanding of the various concepts related to chemical equilibrium. Less than 50% of the students provided correct responses to four of the nine items in the CECT-1. The total scores in the CECT-1 ranged from 0 to 8 with a mean score of 4.14 (out of a maximum of 9). In the CECT-2 the total scores ranged from 7 to 17 with a mean score of 11.0 out of a maximum score of 22. Almost half the number of students (44.6%) scored less than 50% of the total marks in the CECT-2; only 0% to 42.9% of students scored the maximum possible marks for each of the four items while achievement in all four items of the CECT-2 was below 50%. The findings will be valuable and assist teachers in planning their instruction on chemical equilibrium by taking into consideration students’ preconceptions about the topic.
Keywords: chemical equilibrium, dynamic equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s Principle, reversible reactions
Banerjee, A.C. (1991). Misconceptions of students and teachers in chemical equilibrium. International Journal of Science Education, 13(4), 487-494.
Bergquist, W., & Heikkinen, H. (1990). Student ideas regarding chemical equilibrium. Journal of Chemical Education, 67(12), 1000-1003.
Canagaratna, S. G. (2003). Approaches to the treatment of equilibrium perturbations. Journal of Chemical Education,80(10), 1211-1219.
Cheung, D. (2009). The adverse effects of Le Chatelier’s principle on teacher understanding of chemical equilibrium.Journal of Chemical Education,, 86(4), 514-518.
Cheung, D., Ma H.-J, & Yang, J. (2009). Teachers’ misconceptions about the effects of addition of more reactants or products on chemical equilibrium. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 7(6), 1111-1133.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education (7th edn.). Oxford, UK: Routledge.
Finley, F.N., Stewart, J., & Yarroch, W. L. (1982). Teachers’ perceptions of important and difficult science content. Science Education, 66(4), 531-538.
Hackling, M. W., & Garnett, P.J. (1985). Misconceptions of chemical equilibrium. European Journal of Science Education,7(2), 205-214.
Khan, S. (2011). New pedagogies on teaching science with computer simulations. Journal of Science Education & Technology, 20(3), 215-232.
Khatri, S. S. (2013). Qatar’s education system grapples with language challenges. http://www.al-fanarmedia.org/2013/10/zig-zagging-education-policies-leave-qatari-studetns-behind/ Accessed 4 January 2014.
Kousathana, M., & Tsaparlis, G. (2002). Students’ errors in solving numerical chemical equilibrium problems. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 3(1), 5-17.
Liu, H. C., Andre, T., & Greenbowe, T. (2008). The impact of learners’ prior knowledge on their use of chemistry computer simulations: A case study. Journal of Science Education & Technology, 17(5), 466-482.
Loh, Y. L., & Sivaneson, N. (2004). STPM Physical Chemistry (Volume 2). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.
Malaysian Examinations Council. (2003). Teaching courseware chemistry Lower 6. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Author.
Malaysian Examinations Council. (2011). Malaysian Higher School Certificate Chemistry Syllabus 2012/2013. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Author.
Nunally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd. edn.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Özmen, H. (2008). Determination of students’ alternative conceptions about chemical equilibrium: A review of research and the case of Turkey. Chemistry Education Research & Practice, 9(3), 225-223.
Pedrosa, M. A., & Dias, M. H. (2000). Chemistry textbook approaches to chemical equilibrium and student alternative conceptions. Chemistry Education Research & Practice, 1(2), 227-236.
Pintrich, P. R., Marx, R.W., & Boyle, R. A. (1993). Beyond cold conceptual change: The role of motivational beliefs and classroom contextual factors in the process of conceptual change. Review of Educational Research, 63(2), 167-199.
Piquette, J.S., & Heikkinen, H. W. (2005). Strategies reported used by instructors to address student alternative conceptions in chemical equilibrium. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(10), 1112-1134.
Posner, G.J., Strike, K. A., Hewson, P. W., & Gertzog, W.A. (1982). Accommodation of a scientific conception: Toward a theory of conceptual change. Science Education, 66(2), 211-227.
Quílez, J. (2004). Changes in concentration and partial pressure in chemical equilibria: Students’ and teachers’ misunderstandings. Chemistry Education Research & Practice, 5(3), 281-300.
Quilez-Pardo, J., & Solaz-Portoles, J. (1995). Students’ and teachers’ misapplications of Le Chatelier’s Principle: Implications for the teaching of chemical equilibrium. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(9), 939-957.
Russo, S., & Silver, M. E. (2010). Introduction to chemistry (4th edn.). San Francisco, CA: Prentice Hall.
Tan, Y. T. (2012). Chemistry first term. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd.
Thomas, P. L., & Schwenz, R. W. (1998). College physical chemistry students’ conceptions of equilibrium and fundamental thermodynamics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(10), 1151-1160.
Torres, E. M. (2007). Effect of a perturbation on the chemical equilibrium: Comparison with Le Chatelier’s Principle. Journal of Chemical Education, 84(3), 516 -519.
Treagust, D. F. (1988). Development and use of diagnostic tests to evaluate students’ misconceptions in science.International Journal of Science Education, 10(2), 159-169.
Treagust, D. F. (2006). Diagnostic assessment in science as a means to improving teaching, learning and retention. In UniServe science – symposium proceedings: Assessment in science teaching and learning (pp. 1–9). Sydney, NSW: Uniserve Science.
Tyson, L., Treagust, D. F., & Bucat, R. (1999). The complexity of teaching and learning chemical equilibrium. Journal of Chemical Education, 76(4), 554-558.
Van Driel, J. H., De Vos, W., Verloop, N., & Dekkers, H. (1998). Developing secondary students’ conceptions of chemical reactions: The introduction of chemical equilibrium. International Journal of Science Education, 20(4), 379-392.
Voska, K. W., & Heikinnen, H. W. (2000). Identification and analysis of student conceptions used to solve chemical equilibrium problems. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(2), 160-176.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Environmental Science and Engineering Merit Badges: An Exploratory Case Study of a Non-formal Science Education Program and the U.S. Scientific and Engineering Practices
Matthew E. Vick & Michael P. Garvey
pp. 11675-11698 |
The Boy Scouts of America’s Environmental Science and Engineering merit badges are two of their over 120 merit badges offered as a part of a non-formal educational program to U.S. boys. The Scientific and Engineering Practices of the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards provide a vision of science education that includes integrating eight practices that engage youth in inquiry-based learning and investigative design and interpretation. This exploratory study uses document analysis triangulated with a questionnaire under the general principles of program evaluation as a case study to examine the potential alignment of the Boy Scouts of America’s Environmental Science and Engineering merit badges and the Scientific and Engineering Practices of the NGSS. Merit badge requirements were matched with specific elements of the S&EP as described by the NGSS Appendix F progressions for middle school aged youth. The cognitive demand of the requirements was also analyzed using Webb’s Depth of Knowledge. Questionnaires were sent to volunteer merit badge counselors for one Midwestern U.S. Boy Scout council. Their responses were used to inform the analysis of the merit badge requirements. The requirements for both of these badges show connections to several of the S&EP, especially S&EP 3: conducting investigation and S&EP 6: constructing explanations and designing solutions. Triangulating data from merit badge counselors show that Scouts in Engineering merit badge do engage in the engineering design process very much and potentially engage them in investigations and construction of explanations with Environmental Science. Several of the merit badge counselors were highly educated scientists and engineers. Often, these counselors reported engaging Scouts in a manner closest to the vision of the NGSS S&EP. One of the limitations of the Environmental Science merit badge is that investigations are mostly elective options. This exploratory study concludes that the requirements for Boy Scout merit badges are designed in manners that can engage youth in the S&EP. Counselors do affect the extent to which these practices are incorporated. Future studies should examine the learning by youth from merit badges as related to S&EP and general science and engineering content knowledge.
Keywords: Engineering education, informal education, Environmental education (EE)
Allen, S., Gutwill, J., Perry, D. L., Garibay, C., Ellenbogen, K. M., Heimlich, J. E., Reich, C.A., & Klein, C. (2007). Research in Museums: Coping with complexity. In J. H. Falk, L. D. Dierking, & S. Foutz (Eds.) In principle, in practice: Museums as learning institutions (pp. 229–245), Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Bang, M., & Medin, D. (2010). Cultural processes in science education: Supporting the navigation of multiple epistemologies. Science Education, 94(6), 1008–1026.
Bouzo, S. (2012). Engaging underserved audiences in informal science education through community-based partnerships (master’s thesis). Retrieved from Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. https://dspace.library.colostate.edu/handle/10217/71618
Boy Scouts of America (BSA). (2013). Merit badge counselor information. Retrieved from http://www.scouting.org/filestore/pdf/34405.pdf
Chyung, S.Y. Wisniewski, A., Inderbitzen, B., & Campbell, D. (2013). Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26(3), 87-115.
Davidson, E.J. (2005). Evaluation methodology basics: The nuts and bolts of sound evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Falk, J. H., & Dierking, L. D. (2000). Learning from museums: The visitor experience and the making of meaning. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Falk, J. H., Scott, C., Dierking, L., Rennie, L., & Jones, M. C. (2004). Interactives and visitor learning. Curator: The Museum Journal, 47(2), 171–198.
Ferreira, M. (2001). The effect of an after-school program addressing the gender and minority achievement gaps in science, mathematics, and engineering. Arlington, VA: Educational Research Spectrum, Educational Research Services.
Hofstein, A., & Rosenfeld, S. (1996). Bridging the gap between formal and informal science learning. Studies in Science Education, 28, 87–112.
Krapp, A., & Prenzel, M. (2011). Research on interest in science: Theories, methods, and findings. International Journal of Science Education, 33(1), 27–50.
Jan, S.J., Johnson, B.R., & Kim, Y. (2012). Eagle Scouts: Merit Beyond the Badge. Waco, TX: Baylor University. Retrieved from http://www.baylorisr.org/wp-content/uploads/Boy-Scouts-Report.pdf
Jarman, R. (2005). Science learning through scouting: an understudied context for informal science education. International Journal of Science Education, 27(4), 427-450.
Jolly, E., Campbell, P., & Perlman, L. (2004). Engagement, capacity, continuity: A trilogy for student success. St. Paul, MN: GE Foundation and Science Museum of Minnesota.
Martin, L. M. (2004). An emerging research framework for studying informal learning and schools. Science Education, 88(Suppl. 1), S71–S82.
Mathison, S. (1988). Why triangulate? Educational Researcher, 17(2), 13-17.
Miller, F.A. & Alvarado, K. (2005). Incorporating documents into qualitative nursing research. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37(4):348-353.
National Research Council. Committee on Learning Science in Informal Environments. Philip Bell, Bruce Lewenstein, Andrew W. Shouse, and Michael A. Feder, Editors. Board on Science Education, Center for Education. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. (2009). Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
National Research Council. Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K-12 Science Education Standards. Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. (2012). A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
NGSS Lead States. (2013). Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Polson, E. C., Kim, Y., Jang, S. J., Johnson, B. R., & Smith, B. (2013). Being prepared and staying connected: Scouting's influence on social capital and community involvement. Social Science Quarterly, 94(3), 758-776.
Rahm, J., & Ash, D. (2008). Learning environments at the margin: Case studies of disenfranchised youth doing science in an aquarium and an after-school program. Learning Environments Research, 11, 49-62.
Ramey-Gassert, L., Walberg, H., & Walberg, H. (1994). Reexamining connections: Museums as science learning environments. Science Education, 78(4), 345–363.
Renninger, A., Hidi, S., & Krapp, A. (2014). The role of interest in learning and development. New York: Psychology Press.
Rennie, L. J., & McClafferty, T. P. (2002). Objects and learning: Understanding young children’s interaction with science exhibits. In S. G. Paris (Ed.), Perspectives on object-centered learning in museums (pp.191–213). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Riedinger, K. (2015). Identity development of youth during participation at an informal science education camp. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 10(3), 453-475.
Sample McMeeking, L. B., Weinberg, A. E., Boyd, K. J. and Balgopal, M. M. (2016), Student Perceptions of interest, learning, and engagement from an informal traveling science museum. School Science and Mathematics, 116: 253–264. doi:10.1111/ssm.12176
Scriven, M. (2007). Key evaluation checklist. Retrieved from www.wmich.edu/evalctr/archive_checklists/kec_feb07.pdf
Singh, K., Granville, M., & Dika, S. (2002). Mathematics and science achievement: Effects of motivation, interest, and academic engagement. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(6), 323–332.
Stake, R. E. (2010). Qualitative research: Studying how things work. New York, NY: The Guilford Press
Tai, R.H., Liu, C.Q., Maltese, A.V., & Fan, X. (2006). Planning early for careers in science. Science, 312(5777), 1143-1144.
Tran, N. A. (2011). The relationship between students’ connections to out-of-school experiences and factors associated with science learning. International Journal of Science Education, 33(12), 1625–1651.
Webb, N. (1997). Research Monograph Number 6: Criteria for alignment of expectations and assessments on mathematics and science education. Washington, D.C.: CCSSO.
Webb, N. (August 1999). Research Monograph No. 18: Alignment of science and mathematics standards and assessments in four states. Washington, D.C.: CCSSO.
Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|
Innovations in Hospitality Industry
Elena A. Dzhandzhugazova, Ekaterina A. Blinova, Liubov N. Orlova & Marianna M. Romanova
pp. 10387-10400 |
The article focuses on the study of the role and importance of innovation, its classification, the problems of its application in the hotel industry with emphasis on the application of sensory marketing tools in the development of the innovative marketing mix within the hospitality industry. The article provides an analysis of the "seven sensual notes of hospitality", i.e. "sight", "hearing", "smell", "taste", "touch", "intuition", "impression". The authors rely on the "sensual notes" in their consideration of an innovative hotel marketing mix, generalize and systematize the results of studies, practical examples from the experience of the world best hotels. The authors have conducted a comparative analysis of research findings pinpointing the impact of the innovative marketing mix on the performance of hospitality industry enterprises.
Keywords: Hotel industry, hospitality, innovation, innovative hotel marketing mix, sensory marketing
Ambler, T. (1999). Practical marketing. St.Petersburg, Peter Publisher, 375 p.
Aromamarketing. (2016). Direct access: http://aromamarketing.ru/aromarketing.html
Aromaco. (2016). Manage emotions: http://aromaco.kz/ritz-carlton
Aromagroup. (2016). Sensory branding. Statistics: http://www.ekbpromo.ru/ckfinder/userfiles/files/6aromagroup.pdf
Best Hotels of the World. (2008) Moscow: EKSMO, 1073 p.
Blinovа, E.A. (2007). Client-oriented strategies of Russian companies receiving incoming tourists from PRC. Moscow: Russian Academy of Economics, 286 p.
Bulgarihotels. (2016). Direct access: http://www.bulgarihotels.com
Dzhandzhugazova, E.A., Zaitseva, N.A., Larionova, A.A., Pervunin, S.N. (2015). The russian hotel market: Condition and development under the crisis. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 289-296.
Dzhandzhugazova, Е.A. (2013). Particularities of Creation and Promotion of New Ideas in Social Network Space. World Applied Sciences Journal, 1, 79-84.
Dzhandzhugazova, E. A. (2013). New Forms and Possibilities for Promotion of Russian National Parks in the Internet Environment. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 16 (9), 1238-1244.
Dzhandzhugazova, E.A. (2005). Marketing in the hospitality industry. Moscow, Academia Publishing House, 363 p.
Dzhandzhugazova, E.A. (2015). Innovative marketing mix of hotels: Seven sensual notes of hospitality. Russian Regions: looking into the future, 3, 17–27.
Dzhandzhugazova, E.A., Ilina, E.L., Latkin, A.N., Kosheleva, A.I. (2016). Development of creative potential of cinema tourism. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11, 4015-4024.
Zaitseva, N.A. (2013). Management in service industry: tourism and hospitality. Moscow, Academia Publishing House, 288р.
Ilyenkova, S.D. , Kuznetsov, V.I. (2009). Innovation Management. Moscow, Eurasian Open Institute, 183р.
Joseph, B., II Pine and Gilmore J. H. (1999). The Experience Economy: Work Is Theatre and Every Business a Stage. Hardcover, 304p.
Mobile Marketer. (2016). Alex Samuely, How mobile will transform hotel front desks next year: http://www.mobilemarketer.com/cms/sectors/travel/21943.html
Orlova, L.N. (2016). Underlying principles and approaches to the management of sustainable innovation development of economic systems. Management in Russia and abroad, 3, 3-9.
Orlova, L.N. (2014). Mechanisms to ensure sustainable innovative development of economic systems. Yaroslavl: Avers-plus LLC, 111p.
Orekhov, S.A. (2014). The essence of latent competitive potential within entrepreneurial structures and the criteria of its detection. Innovations in science, 30-2, 39–45p.
Frontdesk (2013). Article: http://www.frontdesk.ru/article/obzor-pyati-samyh-ekologichnyh-oteley-mira
Prohotelia. (2016) Direct access: http://prohotelia.com.ua/2015/03/tripbarometer-2015
Radio-mall. (2016). Direct access: http://radio-mall.ru/research/
Romanova, M.M, & Chernova, A.A. (2015).Tendencies and features of innovation in services. Economy and Entrepreneurship, 3, 856–860.
Schumpeter J.A. (2007). Theory of Economic Development. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Moscow, EKSMO, 264 p.
|View Abstract References Full text PDF|