Circular Migration and its Impacts in the Current Stage of Globalization
Magdalena Privarova and Andrej Privara
pp. 12909-12917 |
In recent years, the concept of circular migration is increasingly getting into the center of attention among economic theorists as well as decision-makers in the field of international labor migration. In the current conditions of globalization, circular migration could solve some of the pitfalls encountered on the return migration. This paper outlines the genesis of the concept of circular migration and analyses the impacts of this phenomenon on the development of countries of origin. It also draws attention to the need of establishing mechanisms to ensure the circulating nature of migration movement. To do this, it is necessary to meet certain conditions. In this context, international cooperation on migration is a necessary condition for a “win-win-win” strategy as an important part of circular migration. The paper outlines the various forms of this cooperation.
Keywords: Circular migration, development of countries of origin, international cooperation
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Elementary School Students’ Attitude toward Science and Related Variables
pp. 35-52 |
Worldwide studies have revealed an important issue in that an increasing percentage of students within the X – Y age group are not interested in science. Many students, especially females, have negative feelings and attitudes toward science, which discourages them from continuing with scientific inquiries. There are limited studies related to the factors predicting school students’ attitude toward science; therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationships among the seventh grade elementary students’ attitudes toward science, their learning approaches, motivational goals, science achievement and students’ nature of science (NOS) views. The questionnaires for this study were administered online to 3,598 seventh grade students in different regions and cities of Turkey. The convenience sampling method was used in this study. The correlation results revealed the positive relationship between attitude toward science and the other variables. Multiple regression analysis indicated that while students’ meaningful learning, self-efficacy, and nature of science views have a positive contribution, rote learning contributed negatively to the model. The findings also showed that parents’ income and education level had a significant effect on students’ attitude toward science.
Keywords: attitude toward science, motivational goal, self-efficacy, nature of science
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The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change
Rhonda Christensen & Gerald Knezek
pp. 773-788 |
The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students’ beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered from 1576 middle school students from across the United States in 2014 to validate the instrument and establish the measurement properties of the instrument’s scales. Factor analysis revealed two stable constructs representing beliefs and intentions, which were reconfirmed through multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis techniques. Internal consistency reliability was found to be respectable for the survey as a whole as well as the two separate scales. The Climate Change Attitude Survey was created to fill a void in the measurement of middle school students’ affective responses to the environment and climate change. Educators may find this survey useful for assessing pre- to post intervention attitude changes as well as for identifying differences in selected groups of students. Further development is targeted to include adding new constructs as well as testing the instrument with different population subgroups.
Keywords: environment, middle school students, climate change, survey instrument
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Understanding Scientific Texts: From Structure to Process and General Culture
Ferhat Ensar & Muhammed Eyyüp Sallabaş
pp. 29-34 |
In this study, the historical development of experimental research on learning processes from scientific texts has been introduced. Then a detailed analysis of the main contributions of cognitive science has been provided and the theoretical developments that are considered to have had a major role in the comprehension and understanding of scientific texts have been dwelled on. Our premise is to determine how development in understanding the basics of the comprehension of scientific text has been achieved and indicate the best way to continue research in the fields in which there has been less development. For this reason, types of theoretical developments required in order to make progress within the framework of learning processes from scientific texts have been included in this analysis. Thus, a contribution will be made in terms of better interpretation of the scientific texts used in environmental and science education.
Keywords: Scientific text, expository text, comprehension, environmental education
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Investigating High School Students’ Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts
Mageswary Karpudewan, David F. Treagust, Mauro Mocerino, Mihye Won & A. L. Chandrasegaran
pp. 845-863 |
This study investigated the year 12 students’ (N = 56) understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts after instruction using two conceptual tests, the Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 1(CECT-1) consisting of nine two-tier multiple-choice items and the Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 2(CECT-2) consisting of four structured questions. Both these tests were administered before and after the intervention. Students’ responses to the items in both the instruments indicated limited understanding of the various concepts related to chemical equilibrium. Less than 50% of the students provided correct responses to four of the nine items in the CECT-1. The total scores in the CECT-1 ranged from 0 to 8 with a mean score of 4.14 (out of a maximum of 9). In the CECT-2 the total scores ranged from 7 to 17 with a mean score of 11.0 out of a maximum score of 22. Almost half the number of students (44.6%) scored less than 50% of the total marks in the CECT-2; only 0% to 42.9% of students scored the maximum possible marks for each of the four items while achievement in all four items of the CECT-2 was below 50%. The findings will be valuable and assist teachers in planning their instruction on chemical equilibrium by taking into consideration students’ preconceptions about the topic.
Keywords: chemical equilibrium, dynamic equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s Principle, reversible reactions
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Teaching Listening Comprehension: Bottom-Up Approach
Anvar N. Khuziakhmetov & Galina V. Porchesku
pp. 1989-2001 |
Improving listening comprehension skills is one of the urgent contemporary educational problems in the field of second language acquisition. Understanding how L2 listening comprehension works can have a serious influence on language pedagogy. The aim of the paper is to discuss the practical and methodological value of the notion of the perception base of the language. It also highlights the importance of structural features and frequency of linguistic units in helping to determine teaching priorities in English language teaching, specifically, when training listening skills. The leading approaches to the problem of the paper are the psycholinguistic and statistical ones which help to identify practical teaching principles. The paper illustrates these approaches with the findings on the perceptually relevant features and frequency of the English words and sentences and their linguistic features. The findings are discussed in terms of their application in developing bottom-up listening skills and tested in a listening comprehension experiment. The materials of this article may be of use to those who are interested in problems of speech perception and improving the existing listening comprehension teaching techniques
Keywords: Listening comprehension; speech perception; bottom-up strategies; linguistic features; perception base; frequency
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Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers’ Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science
Elif Adibelli Şahin, Hasan Deniz & Mustafa Sami Topçu
pp. 515-534 |
The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers’ orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School Physics Teachers’ Conceptions of Teaching (Gao & Watkins, 2002), the Epistemic Belief Inventory (Schraw, Bendixen, & Dunkle, 2002), and the Conceptions of Learning Science and the Approaches to Learning Science questionnaires (Lee, Johanson, & Tsai, 2008). Step-wise multiple regression analyses indicated that the teacher-centered/moulding orientation to teaching science was mostly predicted by unfruitful learning approaches, naïve epistemological beliefs, and traditional learning conceptions in science. On the other hand, the student-centered/cultivating orientation to teaching science was mostly explained by constructivist learning conceptions in science. These findings suggest that epistemological beliefs, learning approaches, and learning conceptions are important factors in the genesis of conceptions of teaching science.
Keywords: epistemological beliefs, elementary preservice teachers, teaching conceptions, learning conceptions, learning approaches
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How Do Turkish Middle School Science Coursebooks Present the Science Process Skills?
pp. 829-843 |
An important objective in science education is the acquisition of science process skills (SPS) by the students. Therefore, science coursebooks, among the main resources of elementary science curricula, are to convey accurate SPS. This study is a qualitative study based on the content analysis of the science coursebooks used at middle schools. In the present study, 653 science activities presented in 10 Turkish science coursebooks used for teaching science at the 5th to 8th grade were analyzed. The findings show that activities in the coursebooks are in the planning and starting skill level of SPS. The overall investigation of the science coursebooks revealed that the SPS recommended in science curriculums are not reflected in the science coursebooks used in middle schools. Skills like variables determination and controlling-changing variables are either included at the lowest rates or not at all in the science coursebooks employed. In addition, the representation of each skill varies according to the grade, publisher, and unit.
Keywords: science process skills, science coursebooks, science activities, middle school
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The Feature of Scientific Explanation in the Teaching of Chemistry in the Environment of New Information of School Students’ Developmental Education
Suriya I. Gilmanshina, Iskander R. Gilmanshin, Rimma N. Sagitova & Asiya I. Galeeva
pp. 349-358 |
The aim of this article is to disclose features of scientific explanation in teaching of chemistry in the environment of new information of school students’ developmental education. The leading approach to the study of this problem is the information and environmental approach that comprehensively address the problem of scientific explanation in the teaching of chemistry, to identify its characteristics and its role in the didactic system of developing training. In the article the concept of "informational-educational environment" and "personal information culture", identified the main function as the primary explanation of the procedure of scientific thinking in the teaching of chemistry. The features of scientific explanation in teaching chemistry in the new educational environment due to six types of relationships induction and deduction in explaining chemical phenomena, theories and laws. The choice of the ratio of induction and deduction affect the chemical nature of the studied object, the problem of knowing the object, the logical links between the structure of the object and the structure used to explain knowledge. It was found that the role of scientific explanation in the didactic system of developing education in the new information environment is the development of students forming their scientific outlook, logical thinking and culture of information activities.
Keywords: chemical education, scientific explanation, informational and educational environment.
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Challenges of International Students’ Adjustment to a Higher Education Institution
Tatiana A. Baklashova & Andrey V. Kazakov
pp. 1821-1832 |
The relevance of this work is determined by the real problems of foreign students’ adaptation to the educational environment of Russian high school. International students face certain problems, complicating adaptation to a new lifestyle, to the educational environment of the Russian high school, to a completely new social and cultural environment. Every year more and more foreign students come to Russia to get higher education, and every foreign student goes through an objective process of adaptation to college life. This article aims to develop recommendations, basic principles for an educational institution that provides educational services to foreign citizens. The leading method to the study of this problem is a qualitative method of case-study, which allows to focus on practical knowledge about real everyday situations, faced by foreign students in Russia. The case-study method provides an opportunity to pay close attention to the impact of social, cultural and academic factors on their adaptation. The article revealed that international students often face a series of transitional difficulties immediately after arriving to study in Russian universities. The problems are cataloged according to academic, social and cultural aspects. The article states that in order to overcome these problems, the students use resources provided mainly by the university. On the other hand, it is found out that these problems motivate foreign students to develop strategies to meet emerging challenges. The data obtained can be used in the practice of the university administration, faculty and staff to timely detect and eliminate academic, social and cultural challenges faced by international students at the beginning of their studies in Russia. Attention to these issues will provide more adequate support for foreign students.
Keywords: International students, higher education, academic challenges, social isolation, cultural adjustment
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