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Circular Migration and its Impacts in the Current Stage of Globalization

Magdalena Privarova and Andrej Privara

pp. 12909-12917  |   DOI:
Published Online: October 22, 2016
Article Views: 1144  |  Article Download: 5770


In recent years, the concept of circular migration is increasingly getting into the center of attention among economic theorists as well as decision-makers in the field of international labor migration. In the current conditions of globalization, circular migration could solve some of the pitfalls encountered on the return migration. This paper outlines the genesis of the concept of circular migration and analyses the impacts of this phenomenon on the development of countries of origin. It also draws attention to the need of establishing mechanisms to ensure the circulating nature of migration movement. To do this, it is necessary to meet certain conditions. In this context, international cooperation on migration is a necessary condition for a “win-win-win” strategy as an important part of circular migration. The paper outlines the various forms of this cooperation.

Keywords: Circular migration, development of countries of origin, international cooperation


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Elementary School Students’ Attitude toward Science and Related Variables

Esme Hacieminoglu

pp. 35-52  |   DOI: 10.12973/ijese.2016.288a
Published Online: February 02, 2016
Article Views: 2423  |  Article Download: 4320


Worldwide studies have revealed an important issue in that an increasing percentage of students within the X – Y age group are not interested in science. Many students, especially females, have negative feelings and attitudes toward science, which discourages them from continuing with scientific inquiries. There are limited studies related to the factors predicting school students’ attitude toward science; therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationships among the seventh grade elementary students’ attitudes toward science, their learning approaches, motivational goals, science achievement and students’ nature of science (NOS) views. The questionnaires for this study were administered online to 3,598 seventh grade students in different regions and cities of Turkey. The convenience sampling method was used in this study. The correlation results revealed the positive relationship between attitude toward science and the other variables. Multiple regression analysis indicated that while students’ meaningful learning, self-efficacy, and nature of science views have a positive contribution, rote learning contributed negatively to the model. The findings also showed that parents’ income and education level had a significant effect on students’ attitude toward science. 

Keywords: attitude toward science, motivational goal, self-efficacy, nature of science


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Marketing Mix for E-commerce

Elena V. Pogorelova, Irina V. Yakhneeva, Anna N. Agafonova & Alla O. Prokubovskaya

pp. 6744-6759  |   DOI:
Published Online: September 13, 2016
Article Views: 423  |  Article Download: 2202


The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the need to study the process of transformation of marketing in e-commerce, as the active involvement of business organizations in the field of e-business is often accompanied by problems of applying the usual marketing tools in a virtual environment. The article seeks to identify changes in the elements of the marketing mix in e-commerce in accordance with the trend of e-business and Internet technology. The leading approach to the study of this issue is the marketing model 7P, allowing structuring the changes in a complex of marketing tools with regard to trade and information services of online stores. The results of research were: to establish the determining role of technology and information support of consumers; to identify the areas of transformation of the marketing mix in e-commerce, demonstrating the significant influence of consumers on the content of 7P and personalize the supply of goods and services. The article may be useful for online stores in case of marketing strategy development, identification of the most important elements of 7P, assessment of marketing effectiveness and optimization of marketing costs.

Keywords: Customer behavior, digital economy, e-commerce, marketing mix


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Teaching Listening Comprehension: Bottom-Up Approach

Anvar N. Khuziakhmetov & Galina V. Porchesku

pp. 1989-2001  |   DOI: 10.12973/ijese.2016.572a
Published Online: June 14, 2016
Article Views: 525  |  Article Download: 2100


Improving listening comprehension skills is one of the urgent contemporary educational problems in the field of second language acquisition. Understanding how L2 listening comprehension works can have a serious influence on language pedagogy. The aim of the paper is to discuss the practical and methodological value of the notion of the perception base of the language. It also highlights the importance of structural features and frequency of linguistic units in helping to determine teaching priorities in English language teaching, specifically, when training listening skills. The leading approaches to the problem of the paper are the psycholinguistic and statistical ones which help to identify practical teaching principles. The paper illustrates these approaches with the findings on the perceptually relevant features and frequency of the English words and sentences and their linguistic features. The findings are discussed in terms of their application in developing bottom-up listening skills and tested in a listening comprehension experiment. The materials of this article may be of use to those who are interested in problems of speech perception and improving the existing listening comprehension teaching techniques

Keywords: Listening comprehension; speech perception; bottom-up strategies; linguistic features; perception base; frequency


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The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change

Rhonda Christensen & Gerald Knezek

pp. 773-788  |   DOI: 10.12973/ijese.2015.276a
Published Online: September 13, 2015
Article Views: 1153  |  Article Download: 1713


The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students’ beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered from 1576 middle school students from across the United States in 2014 to validate the instrument and establish the measurement properties of the instrument’s scales. Factor analysis revealed two stable constructs representing beliefs and intentions, which were reconfirmed through multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis techniques. Internal consistency reliability was found to be respectable for the survey as a whole as well as the two separate scales. The Climate Change Attitude Survey was created to fill a void in the measurement of middle school students’ affective responses to the environment and climate change. Educators may find this survey useful for assessing pre- to post intervention attitude changes as well as for identifying differences in selected groups of students. Further development is targeted to include adding new constructs as well as testing the instrument with different population subgroups. 

Keywords: environment, middle school students, climate change, survey instrument


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Environmental Science and Engineering Merit Badges: An Exploratory Case Study of a Non-formal Science Education Program and the U.S. Scientific and Engineering Practices

Matthew E. Vick & Michael P. Garvey

pp. 11675-11698  |   DOI:
Published Online: November 28, 2016
Article Views: 148  |  Article Download: 1490


The Boy Scouts of America’s Environmental Science and Engineering merit badges are two of their over 120 merit badges offered as a part of a non-formal educational program to U.S. boys. The Scientific and Engineering Practices of the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards provide a vision of science education that includes integrating eight practices that engage youth in inquiry-based learning and investigative design and interpretation.  This exploratory study uses document analysis triangulated with a questionnaire under the general principles of program evaluation as a case study to examine the potential alignment of the Boy Scouts of America’s Environmental Science and Engineering merit badges and the Scientific and Engineering Practices of the NGSS. Merit badge requirements were matched with specific elements of the S&EP as described by the NGSS Appendix F progressions for middle school aged youth. The cognitive demand of the requirements was also analyzed using Webb’s Depth of Knowledge. Questionnaires were sent to volunteer merit badge counselors for one Midwestern U.S. Boy Scout council. Their responses were used to inform the analysis of the merit badge requirements.  The requirements for both of these badges show connections to several of the S&EP, especially S&EP 3: conducting investigation and S&EP 6: constructing explanations and designing solutions. Triangulating data from merit badge counselors show that Scouts in Engineering merit badge do engage in the engineering design process very much and potentially engage them in investigations and construction of explanations with Environmental Science. Several of the merit badge counselors were highly educated scientists and engineers. Often, these counselors reported engaging Scouts in a manner closest to the vision of the NGSS S&EP. One of the limitations of the Environmental Science merit badge is that investigations are mostly elective options.  This exploratory study concludes that the requirements for Boy Scout merit badges are designed in manners that can engage youth in the S&EP. Counselors do affect the extent to which these practices are incorporated. Future studies should examine the learning by youth from merit badges as related to S&EP and general science and engineering content knowledge.

Keywords: Engineering education, informal education, Environmental education (EE)


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Investigating High School Students’ Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

Mageswary Karpudewan, David F. Treagust, Mauro Mocerino, Mihye Won & A. L. Chandrasegaran

pp. 845-863  |   DOI: 10.12973/ijese.2015.280a
Published Online: October 10, 2015
Article Views: 882  |  Article Download: 1419


This study investigated the year 12 students’ (N = 56) understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts after instruction using two conceptual tests, the Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 1(CECT-1) consisting of nine two-tier multiple-choice items and the Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 2(CECT-2) consisting of four structured questions. Both these tests were administered before and after the intervention. Students’ responses to the items in both the instruments indicated limited understanding of the various concepts related to chemical equilibrium. Less than 50% of the students provided correct responses to four of the nine items in the CECT-1. The total scores in the CECT-1 ranged from 0 to 8 with a mean score of 4.14 (out of a maximum of 9). In the CECT-2 the total scores ranged from 7 to 17 with a mean score of 11.0 out of a maximum score of 22. Almost half the number of students (44.6%) scored less than 50% of the total marks in the CECT-2; only 0% to 42.9% of students scored the maximum possible marks for each of the four items while achievement in all four items of the CECT-2 was below 50%. The findings will be valuable and assist teachers in planning their instruction on chemical equilibrium by taking into consideration students’ preconceptions about the topic. 

Keywords: chemical equilibrium, dynamic equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s Principle, reversible reactions


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Challenges of International Students’ Adjustment to a Higher Education Institution

Tatiana A. Baklashova & Andrey V. Kazakov

pp. 1821-1832  |   DOI: 10.12973/ijese.2016.557a
Published Online: June 12, 2016
Article Views: 471  |  Article Download: 1356


The relevance of this work is determined by the real problems of foreign students’ adaptation to the educational environment of Russian high school. International students face certain problems, complicating adaptation to a new lifestyle, to the educational environment of the Russian high school, to a completely new social and cultural environment. Every year more and more foreign students come to Russia to get higher education, and every foreign student goes through an objective process of adaptation to college life. This article aims to develop recommendations, basic principles for an educational institution that provides educational services to foreign citizens. The leading method to the study of this problem is a qualitative method of case-study, which allows to focus on practical knowledge about real everyday situations, faced by foreign students in Russia.  The case-study method provides an opportunity to pay close attention to the impact of social, cultural and academic factors on their adaptation. The article revealed that international students often face a series of transitional difficulties immediately after arriving to study in Russian universities. The problems are cataloged according to academic, social and cultural aspects. The article states that in order to overcome these problems, the students use resources provided mainly by the university. On the other hand, it is found out that these problems motivate foreign students to develop strategies to meet emerging challenges. The data obtained can be used in the practice of the university administration, faculty and staff to timely detect and eliminate academic, social and cultural challenges faced by international students at the beginning of their studies in Russia. Attention to these issues will provide more adequate support for foreign students.

Keywords: International students, higher education, academic challenges, social isolation, cultural adjustment


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The Problem of Reading and Reading Culture Improvement of Students-Bachelors of Elementary Education in Modern High Institution

Lera A. Kamalova & Natal’ya D. Koletvinova

pp. 473-484  |   DOI: 10.12973/ijese.2016.318a
Published Online: April 11, 2016
Article Views: 359  |  Article Download: 1165


This article is aimed to study the problems of reading and improve reading culture of students-bachelors of elementary education in modern high institutions and development of the most effective methods and techniques for improving of reading culture of students in the study of Humanities disciplines. The leading method to the study of this problem is a pedagogical experiment (ascertainment, formation and control stages of experiment), and the method of expert estimations, statistical processing of quantitative research results. The article identifies the most effective methodological techniques of reading culture improvement of undergraduate students, future specialists of elementary education in their learning process at the University; We offered the methodology of reading culture improvement for the undergraduate students of "Elementary education" profile, providing thoughtful skill of reading of the works of various styles and genre, creative reading skill, formation of reading competence of students.

Keywords: elementary education, reading skill, reading culture, personal and professional development, creative reading, means of communication


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Understanding Scientific Texts: From Structure to Process and General Culture

Ferhat Ensar & Muhammed Eyyüp Sallabaş

pp. 29-34  |   DOI: 10.12973/ijese.2016.287a
Published Online: January 01, 2016
Article Views: 1370  |  Article Download: 1159


In this study, the historical development of experimental research on learning processes from scientific texts has been introduced. Then a detailed analysis of the main contributions of cognitive science has been provided and the theoretical developments that are considered to have had a major role in the comprehension and understanding of scientific texts have been dwelled on. Our premise is to determine how development in understanding the basics of the comprehension of scientific text has been achieved and indicate the best way to continue research in the fields in which there has been less development. For this reason, types of theoretical developments required in order to make progress within the framework of learning processes from scientific texts have been included in this analysis. Thus, a contribution will be made in terms of better interpretation of the scientific texts used in environmental and science education. 

Keywords: Scientific text, expository text, comprehension, environmental education


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